Chapter 6: An Army Surplus-The NVA's Heritage

by Otfried Nassauer


The fall of the Berlin wall and the succeeding German reunification left the Federal Republic of Germany's Bundeswehr with an additional, inherited army, the former East German National Peoples Army (NVA). The personnel, infra-structure, weapons, ammunition and all other types of equipment of the former East German armed forces-supplemented by weaponry former-ly owned by the East German Intelligence and internal Security Services (Stasi), the border troops and other armed units-ended up under Bundeswehr ownership, custody and responsibility. Later, the stocks of the East German arms trade company 'IMES' . Thus inter alia more than 20,000 additional sub-machine guns came under Bundeswehr custody about one year after unification (Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/1448, p.21).

The Bundeswehr halted attempts of the newly elected democratic Ger-man Democratic Republic (GDR) government to sell large quantities of these weapons, ammunition and equipment under 44 last-minute contracts with foreign governments and international arms traders for extremely low prices between August and October 1990, by argu-ing that many of these systems might be incorporated into the armed forces of the unified Germany. However, soon after reunification increasing amounts of former East German weapon systems and mili-tary equipment came to be seen as a 'surplus' no longer necessary for the Bundeswehr.

Today the net results have become visible: except for a few weapon sys-tems which will be used for a short period of time-24 modern Mig-29 fighter aircraft and larger quantities of low-tech, general purpose equip-ment-all of the former NVA stock-piles became surplus.

This paper looks into several aspects of the NVA case:

  • the availability and reliability of data about the NVA-i.e., the size of the heritage
  • the system of decision-making concerning the future of NVA equipment
  • the exports from surplus stocks
  • the German obligations under the CFE Treaty.

The paper presents an overview by concentrating on the major cate-gories of weapons and military equipment. It looks at weapon sys-tems rather than military dual-use equipment, and on weapons exported or scrapped rather than those destined for static displays at exhibitions.

Defining the Size of the NVA Heritage

The answer to the fundamental question of how much and what exactly the Bundeswehr inherited from the NVA is surprising: although both armed forces were 'German' armies-thus reflecting a specific understanding about the necessity for bureaucratic correct-ness-there seem to be no reliable or conclusive books of record. It is therefore impossible to compile a comprehensive set of data on how many of which systems and items were available on 3 October 1990, when the Bundeswehr officially took command over the former NVA. Developing a clear understanding of the destiny of many of the inherited weapons has also proven to be ex-tremely difficult.

While some of differences have been sufficiently explained in open or closed sessions of parliament, it is highly unlikely that this is true for all-the Bundeswehr has argued that this task would be too complicated and time consuming. In principle, difficulties in keeping a clear record for transportable items may be imagined due to the circumstances under which bookkeepers had to work after reunification (i.e., lack of experienced and specialized per-sonnel, layoffs in personnel, sub-stantial relocations, exports, sales and constant changes); nevertheless, there are good reasons for a more skeptical approach. Most of the excuses for mistakes in accounting for transportable goods are not reasonable for immobile items. The German Ministry of Defense (MoD) provided parliament with varying figures regarding the total number of installations it took over in the former GDR-between May 1991 and May 1994 inter alia the follow-ing figures were given officially: 2,250, 3,320, 2,280, 2,235 and 2,288. Other aspects support a skeptical point of view; although the MoD produces regular reports for parlia-ment on NVA military equipment, it has not yet succeeded in producing them in a standard format that allows detailed comparison. From the author's point of view, an inten-tional lack of transparency exists. Even with extensive sources avail-able, therefore, there will be no clear and comprehensive set of data from which to start, when investigating the fate of surplus weapons from the former GDR stockpiles.

Indeed, the differences between the available data are large enough to encourage much speculation, includ-ing assumptions about stocks not justified, illegally exported or used for purposes of operational foreign policy.

This situation is due in part to a lack of political control over the armed forces during the unification process. The German Bundestag only lately decided to execute tougher control over the administration's decisions and behavior with respect to the former NVA equipment. Other topics were perceived as more im-portant by the newly elected parlia-mentarians during most of 1991. More detailed parliamentary control was executed only when in October 1991 the Hamburg harbor police seized a clandestine delivery of 14 military items to Israel, including two complete Schilka ZSU 23/4 air defense systems declared to be 'agricultural machines.' In the aftermath of parliamentary invest-igations, many other exports came to parliamentary attention (Deutscher Bundestag, 2 December 1991). As a consequence the Ministry of Defense was tasked in spring 1992 to regularly report on its activities with respect to the former NVA equipment.

"Going out of business sales" of the former GDR

In several last-minute contracts, signed as late as 1-2 October 1990, huge amounts of weapon systems were sold by the GDR Ministry of Disarmament and Defense at very low prices.
Major contracts included:

  • MoD of Poland, DM 207.9 million, to include 2700 Fagott AT-missiles; 11 Mig-29s; 152mm ammunition; air-to-air missiles, etc.
  • MoD of Hungary, approximately DM 100 million, to include 200 T-72 MBTs for DM 180,000 each; 130,000 AT mines for DM 10 each; 50,000 AK-74 submachine guns for DM 60 each; and many other weapons as well as spare parts
  • CIC International Ltd (USA), DM 275.5 million or US $349 million, to include 3 ships project 151 for US $10 million per copy; 12 ships project 205 for US $100,000 per copy; Mig-21s and Mig-23s; 58 BM-21 and 100 RM-70 rocket launchers; 5,000 Sagger AT missiles for US $800 each; 1,200 T-55 for US $10,000 per copy; 200 T-72 MBTs for US $200,000 each
  • Beij-MA Military District (Belgium), DM 62.5 million, to include inter alia 32 Mi-24 helicopters for DM 300,000 per copy; 100 T-72 tanks for DM 180,000 per copy; 9mm pistols for DM 10 per copy including ammunition; light machine guns for DM 75 per copy; RPG-18 light assault weapons for DM 85 each; 100,000 anti-personnel mines for DM 25 each
  • OEG SUMER Handels- und Service Gesellschaft, different contracts regarding NBC equipment and decontamination materials for export to Saudi Arabia (export licensed by FRG)
  • Harlacher small arms and ammunition for DM 317,746
  • Heckler & Koch ammunition for DM 144,700
  • ALTKAM (USSR), DM 498,420 for vehicles
  • MAWIA GmbH, one demilitarized ship, later illegally exported to Guinea
  • Königsberg-Foundation, DM 1.5 million for three L-410 transport aircraft

The two large contracts with arms traders included a paragraph allowing both sides to withdraw from their obligations if the necessary official licenses, allowances, etc. could not be gained; thus, it is likely no actual transfers have been made. Whether and to what extent the contracts with Poland and Hungary were fulfilled is not publicly known.

Letter by which the Bundeswehr's liaison group at the GDR Ministry of Disarmament and Defense asked to withhold the systems listed in an Annex from the GDR's list of weapons for sale: Bundesministerium der Verteidigung/Ministerium für Abrüstung und Verteidigung (DDR), 6 September 1990; Vielain, 1991; Bauer, 1993, p. IV.2-1; author's archives.

Table 1: Estimated Holdings of the NVA


Main Battle Tanks                   






Helicopters (attack)                


Fighter Aircraft (incl. L-39 trainer)                                                   


Fighting Ships                      


Vehicles (incl. trailers)           


Fire Arms                             

ca 1,200,000         

Ammunition (metric tons)             

ca 300,000           


Source: Deutscher Bundestag, 11 May 1992, pp. 5+. For details, see Annex 1.


The GDR Ministry of Defense and Disarmament maintained a list of weapon systems and major items held by the NVA. After taking possession, the Bundeswehr argued repeatedly that this listing was by no means correct or complete since the NVA did not keep reliable statistics on its holdings. Surprisingly the Bundeswehr never referred to an extensive database of the former NVA, which was run at the GDR MoD and contained data on the NVA military installations and their local weapon and equipment stockpiles.

A new computerized accounting and management system for a broader range of items was established by the Bundeswehr, but no comprehensive comparison of both accounting systems has been published. Nevertheless, in January 1992 the Bundeswehr reprinted large parts of the former NVA listing and preliminary figures on the differences between this list and the new accounting system. In trying to explain these differences, the Bundeswehr argued inter alia that the NVA normally updated its listing every two years; the latest completed update occurred in 1987, and therefore did not contain more recent changes. The 1989 update was allegedly canceled due to the political developments. Parts of the NVA list available to the author and representing a 30 June 1990 printout from the GDR MoD computer system, however, clearly show that an update including many 1989-1990 changes must have been accomplished by the NVA. A comparison with the list reprinted by the German MoD in 1992 reveals that the reprinted version lists data of 1989 and 1990 origin without attributing them to a post-1987 entry. Both listings reflect the same totals for most or all systems listed in both. The major difference between the two sources is that the printout in the author's archive lists the weapon systems by age, thus establishing when they were added to the NVA inventory. Additions to inventory up to 1990 are listed. Thus, the argument that no update was made since 1987 cannot be accepted.

The data published by the FRG government and given to German Parliament committees from both sources differ widely. Detailed comparisons between the figures also reveal differences between data published from the new Bundeswehr system at different times. Astonishingly enough, the new Bundeswehr accounting system figures have been corrected in many cases and in that way came much closer to the original NVA figures (see Annex 1 and Annex 2).


(Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, 19 December 1991, p.19; Wehrdienst 1303/1992, p.2; Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/2026).(Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/2026, Attachment 1; printout from the GDR's MoD computer, 30 June 1990)

Decisionmaking System Regarding the Future of NVA Weapons and Materials

During the early months after reunification, the Bundeswehr laid primary emphasis on ensuring control over the NVA's material heritage. Thousands of major weapons and thousands of tons of equipment were relocated and brought under a more centralized, easier-to-guard storage system. Thousands of military installations-often containing weapons, ammunitions or other dangerous goods-had to be guarded, despite a serious lack of personnel.

Because of the amount of weapons and items to be handled, the Bundeswehr established a specific selection system to make decisions about the future of these items. Three different categories of items were created:

  • Category 1: service with the Bundeswehr for the foreseeable future
  • Category 2: further evaluation or continued interim service with the Bundeswehr
  • Category 3: immediately in excess

A typical example of a category 1 weapon is the modern Mig-29 fighter aircraft, which the Bundeswehr will use beyond the year 2000. Other examples are two Tupolev aircraft converted into the German 'Open Skies' airplane. The Mi-24 attack helicopters and Mi-8 transport helicopters are good examples of category 2 material that was further used or evaluated and is or will be retired from service. The bulk of the major weapon systems-e.g., all other fighter and fighter bomber aircraft, 98 percent of the main battle tanks, 95 percent of the armored cavalry vehicles and 95 percent of the artillery systems and mortars-were decided to be in excess early in the process. About 80 percent of the non-weapon systems and major types of equipment were similarly resolved as early as 1991. Additional weapons and materials from categories 1 and 2 have since been recategorized to category 3. Among the weapons first considered for use with the Bundeswehr were the D-30 howitzers, the RM-70 missile launchers, the BTR-70 APCs and others. They were recategorized, as were 892 BMP-1, 2 SAM systems SA-5, 163,039 AK 74 submachine guns, 24 Mi-24 helicopters and many others (Schulte, 1990, p. 873; Deutscher Bundestag, 11 May 1992, p.5). Although recent official figures on which and how much of the former NVA equipment is still in use are unavailable, it is no longer very much. In addition to those arguments used in public for phasing out most NVA weapon systems (dependence on Russian spares, incompatibility with German technical standards, etc.) one argument may have also contributed to these decisions: the more weapons from the NVA the Bundeswehr continued to operate, the more NVA specialists it would have to continue to employ.

Category 3 weapons and materials were collected and stored in special depots. They have been used for one the following purposes:

  • service with another German Federal Ministry, e.g. the Ministry of Interior
  • service with the new Länder or community authorities to strengthen the buildup of infrastructure
  • export sales from government to government
  • foreign military aid programs
  • technical intelligence exchange programs
  • humanitarian aid programs
  • takeover by the government-controlled company VEBEG for scrapping or selling after partial or complete demilitarization
  • takeover by the Bundeswehr for technical intelligence purposes
  • use by the Bundeswehr as live targets on training sites
  • use as static displays in national as well as foreign exhibitions (Wehrdienst, 15 November 1993, pp.2-3).

Special interest was immediately given to those categories of weapons subject to the CFE regulations (Hartmann, et al., 1992; Zellner, 1994; Crawford, 1991; Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies). The CFE Treaty, signed November 1990 in Paris, continued to be applicable in the new political situation when Germany accepted all limitations for the unified Germany that were originally intended for West Germany. This decision made Germany the country with the second largest obligations for reductions under the treaty. Nevertheless, the treaty allowed each signatory a period of time for corrections to its original notification figures. It allowed the earmarking of Treaty Limited Equipment (TLEs) as intended for export according to Article III regulations. Some types of TLEs could also be recategorized under the treaty regulations by making specific changes to their construction. As the CFE Treaty entered into force no earlier than November 1992, there was sufficient time to use those provisions that allowed reductions to the costs associated with fulfilling the signatories obligations to scrap weapon systems. There was also sufficient time to export treaty-limited weapons. Indeed, German government officials informed members of parliament that exports would become more difficult after ratification (Deutscher Bundestag, September 1991, pp.12+). Comparing Germany's 1990 assumptions about how many TLEs it would have to scrap with those given since shows that Germany has taken advantage of these regulations-it will have to destroy much less weapons than it had assumed in 1990.

Exports became a major means of ridding the Bundeswehr of the NVA's heritage. A number of factors contributed to this development. When the Bundeswehr took command of the NVA, no specialized dismantling facilities were available to immediately begin to destroy NVA weapons, ammunitions and toxic materials in accordance with environmental regulations. Although many environmental laws were suspended in the five new Länder for several years, only a few small or experimental facilities were available to immediately start the destruction of military equipment. During the time necessary to build up specialized facilities, only small amounts of the most dangerous types of ammunitions and weapons could be destroyed, e.g., liquid fuel missile types. The bulk of all weapons and equipment had to be guarded and stored. For months this caused serious complications for the Bundeswehr; they tried to implement a centralized and categorized storage system, but soon argued that these tasks would divert the armed forces for years from their normal defense, training and military tasks. An informal consensus was reached-the sooner reductions of these surplus stocks took place, the lower the costs of handling the NVA's heritage would be. It was simply cheaper and faster to transport a weapon to another country that paid for the transfer and maybe even for the weapon, than to first pay for storing it and then for destroying it.

To help the Bundeswehr win time for its military tasks, a newly established subsidiary of the government-owned company VEBEG, the MSDG (Material-Service-Depot-Gesellschaft), was assigned with guarding and operating those depots in which material was awaiting delivery for future in-country use, export or destruction.

Table 2: German Exports of Major Weapon Systems 1992-93

(according to origin)

Category    1992-93  FRG       FRG      GDR       Percentage  Type of GDR     

Exports  Systems   Surplus  Surplus   GDR         Weapon Systems  


MBT              382       243      242       139        36.4 T-72, T-55      

ACV/IFV          525       278      187       247        47.0 BMP-1,          


                                                              MT-LB, PTS*     

Artillery        459       ---      ---       459       100.0 SPH 122 and     


Attack             2         1      ---         1        50.0 Mi-24           


Combat           106        93       93        13        12.3 Su-22,          

Aircraft                                                      Mig-21/23       

* This ACV/IFV was not identified clearly; although no equipment of West German origin is known to be designated PTS, it is accounted for in the NVA share.

This table also makes clear that most of the exports from Bundeswehr stocks are surplus weapons. The tanks exported were Leopard 1s, the aircraft were Alpha Jets and F-4 Phantoms, and the 187 IFVs were M-113s.

Source: United Nations General Assembly, 1992 and 1993.


Exports from former NVA stocks largely contribute to Germany's rank as the second (or third) most important supplier of major weapon systems according to the 1992 and 1993 UN Registers of Conventional Arms. Substantial numbers of weapon systems as well as other military items have been exported.

In general, the rules for handling excess Bundeswehr items had to be applied for all surplus items of the former NVA; no special regulations were created with respect to German arms trade and export laws (Heyden, 1990, p.62). Indeed, during a meeting of the German Federal Security Council on 27 February 1991, it was decided that all exports should be handled in accordance with normal West German procedures as well as the 1982 political guidelines for arms exports (Deutscher Bundestag, 2 December 1991, p.26). The seizure of the covert delivery to Israel led on 23 December 1991 to a policy within the MoD of tighter control of the political leadership (Wehrdienst, 1300/1992, p.II).

Nevertheless, the process of preparing for these deliveries had started much earlier. Only two days after the March 1990 elections in the former GDR-which brought a CDU-led Eastern German government into power-a meeting took place within the West German Ministry of Defense to discuss when and with whom the inherited military equipment would be shared.

Many countries made requests for former NVA equipment; some of them did so even before reunification. In November 1991, a list was published naming a total of 44 countries that had requested NVA weapons (not including requests for humanitarian aid purposes). Among them were NATO allies Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as Italy, Spain, Canada and Holland. A wide range of non-NATO countries from Europe and other parts of the world was listed as well: Finland, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden, Bulgaria, Estonia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, the USSR, Egypt, Algeria, Botswana, Ecuador, Israel, India, Saudi Arabia, Peru, Tunisia, Singapore and many others (Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, Parlamentarischer Staatssekretär, 21 November 1991).

Exports to the Gulf War Allies

Preparations for the Gulf War partly coincided with the process of German reunification. Since Iraqi forces operated mainly Soviet types of military equipment, the United States, the United Kingdom and-outside of the Gulf alliance-Israel approached the German government early on for various types of military equipment with which they might be confronted. Requests were mainly driven by 'technical intelligence' needs, i.e., testing and evaluation purposes. Therefore only small numbers of individual systems were necessary.

Germany, because of internal policy reasons and constitutional problems, could not contribute troops to the war. It therefore decided to give financial support and to supply military equipment in order to avoid increasing political pressure from its allies. This compensation strategy proved to be costly, totaling some DM 17-18 billion, or roughly US $10 billion at the time (Wehrdienst, 1258/1991, p.1). NVA equipment, at cost estimated by the German government, made up a significant part. This policy largely contributed to early and major exports of NVA weapons. The Commander of the Bundeswehr Command East at the time, Jörg Schönbohm, later wrote: "I have witnessed former NVA soldiers to be laid off by 1st of January 1991, working over the Christmas Holidays of 1990, to ensure that material for our allies operating in the Persian Gulf could be provided timely" (Schönbohm, 1992, p.43).

While the United States received a wide range of weapons for technical evaluation and larger numbers of different trucks, logistics and medical supplies for operational purposes, France obtained mine clearance and mine laying equipment. Egypt secured 30 NBC reconnaissance vehicles and a 250-ton spares package in October 1992 (Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/1999, p.15). Israel received NBC decontamination equipment, firefighting equipment and other dual-use supplies. Turkey was the only country that showed interest in obtaining substantial numbers and a wider range of actual weapon systems. Supplies to Turkey ultimately led to the necessity of similar deliveries to Greece, thus creating a new military aid program for both countries (see extra section below).

Table 3: Examples of NVA-Equipment Delivered to the Gulf-War Allies*

Type of Equipment     Designation         Number      Recipient   

Delivered*  Country     

Engineering           T 130                        25     USA     


Trucks                Tatra 813 8x8               151     USA     

Trucks                Tatra 815 6x8               208     USA     

Trucks                Tatra 815 8x8                62     USA     

Trucks (POL)          Tatra 815 CAPL 16           104     USA     

Trucks (POL)          Tatra 815 CA 18              17     USA     

Trucks                Tatra 815 VI                129     USA     

Trailers for Tatra    ---                         128     USA     

815 VI                                                            

Trucks (POL, 5,000    Ural                         48     USA     


Trucks Maintenance    Ural 375C                    48     USA     

Heavy Load Trailers   P 50 and P 80               189     USA     

Trailer (Water)                                   220     USA     

Trailer (POL)                                     294     USA     

Medical Cars          LO 2002 A/C                  47     USA     

Trucks with Showers   W50 LA/A/C                  604     USA     

Water Bottles                                  18,000     USA     

Containers (20 ft.)                               724     USA     

Tents (8x15 m)                                    200     USA     

NBC protection masks                          100,000     USA     

Mine Clearance        KMT 5                        10     FR      


Mine Clearance        KMT 6M 2                     10     FR      


Mine Laying Equip.    MLG 60M                       4     FR      

Trucks                Tatra 815 6x6                40    CSFR     

Heavy Load Trailers   P50/80                       40    CSFR     

NBC equipment         various                           Israel    

SPW-40 NBC rec. veh.                               30    Egypt    

Spares Package        250 tons spares               1    Egypt    

* This table is deliberately incomplete, as it does not include exports covered in other sections. Excluded are deliveries to the United States for testing and evaluation as well as for training purposes; deliveries to Turkey; and deliveries for technical intelligence purposes to Israel. Israel also requested other NVA equipment but detailed and official figures are not publicly known.

Source: Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 22 February 1991.

Exports for Technical Intelligence

Former NVA weapons were given as loans or as gifts to foreign countries for technical intelligence, i.e., testing and evaluation purposes. These types of exports were said to be limited to the NATO countries and Israel. Other countries-"several Arab countries"-may also have benefited from such exports (Deutscher Bundestag, 2 December 1991, p.5). While such deliveries were implemented on a regular basis according to agreed NATO guidelines with the United States, the United Kingdom and France, each delivery to Israel was decided on a case-by-case basis (for details, see Annex 4).

The deliveries of former NVA equipment to the United States are somewhat unique in this context. On the one hand, they covered a broader number of types of equipment than deliveries to any other country. In fact, the United States is the only country that received large numbers of complete major weapon systems. On the other hand, the United States is the only country that received substantial numbers of weapons from the former NVA for training purposes. The US military maintains complete 'red flag' units, equipped with Soviet/Russian weapons, in order to conduct its military training as realistically as possible. The opportunity to equip these units with more modern equipment from NVA stocks was not passed up. It can not be clearly determined in all cases whether deliveries of NVA equipment to the United States served technical intelligence or training purposes.

According to official statements, Israel is the only country outside of NATO participating in this exchange; several clandestine operations were set up by the West German Foreign Intelligence Service to secretly transport NVA weapons to Israel in cooperation with the Mossad.

Israel (Deutscher Bundestag, 2 December 1991; Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, 10 December 1991; Kolbow/Stoltenberg, 1992) was one of the first countries to informally show interest in NVA equipment. Based on a 1967 general agreement and case-by-case cooperation between the armed forces of Israel, the German Bundeswehr and the two countries' foreign intelligence services, this type of cooperation already had some practice. Historically, the FRG had benefited greatly from cooperation, since Israel had provided the FRG with some complete major weapon systems captured during the wars in the Near East, including an AA-2 air-to-air missile and a BMP-2. The German side did not have much hardware to give in return. Even before the unification date, however, the Israeli military attaché in Bonn had tabled preliminary requests for weapon systems of interest to the Mossad and the Israeli armed forces. In mid-1991, the Israeli list contained 274 positions, of which the German government had fulfilled some 68 positions by December 1991 and was preparing to fulfill an unknown number of additional ones (it had also turned down an unknown number of wishes). The weapons seized in Hamburg (14 positions) were finally delivered in October 1992. Examples of deliveries to Israel can be found in Annex 4.

While in public it was argued that these deliveries occurred as part of the German Gulf War effort and as part of the normal, intra-alliance cooperation, one possible additional motive must be mentioned. With Germany no longer a front-line state and thus having significantly less-valuable COMINT, ELINT and other intelligence information to share, transferring relatively modern, Eastern-style weaponry and equipment from NVA stocks was clearly a possibility for interim compensation.

From what is known about exports, loans and deliveries for technical intelligence purposes, a few conclusions may be drawn.

  • Much of the equipment requested and received by the United States, France, the United Kingdom and Israel was identical. All countries were obviously looking for a number of the same items, which seem not to have been well known to the Western world. Ship-to-ship missiles of the P21 and P22 'Styx' types are good examples, as are modern air-to-air missiles.
  • There was some reluctance in the FRG about giving Israel complete weapon systems or large numbers of the same item, while the United Kingdom and the United States obtained complete major weapons if requested.
  • Israel and the United States both were obviously interested in land-mine technologies used by the NVA.
  • Only the United States looked into many major weapons systems, such as different types of aircraft (Su-22M4, Mig-23 and Mig-29), different tanks or a complete fighting ship, such as the Tarantul class missile corvette. The United States also seems to be the only country with the resources necessary to operate complete 'red flag' type military units.
  • From what is known publicly, the recipient countries appear to have had only limited interest in electronic counter-measure (ECM) or electronic counter-counter-measure (ECCM) equipment from NVA stocks. This is either due to the assumption that these items were not very capable or is an indication that relevant information has been withheld from the public for secrecy reasons.

Since cooperation in technical intelligence is normally subject to intense secrecy, the seizure of the Hamburg weapons for Israel caused investigations that allowed a first glimpse of German practices as well as of some of its partners' behaviors in this field. To the author's knowledge, this case is unique. The size and the wide range of the deliveries discussed during the investigations clearly raise the question of whether more transparency in this field could make a unique contribution to confidence building.

Arming Allies and Fueling a Regional Conflict

Turkey and Greece are among the largest recipients of former NVA weapon systems. As noted above, supplies to these two countries originated from the Turkish requests in the Gulf War context. Both countries contracted for new, large, military aid packages (Materialhilfe III), consisting of a wide mixture of surplus NVA and Bundeswehr weapons to be delivered until 1994/1995. Thus, these programs became rather independent from the Gulf War.

Greece received inter alia 21,675 RPG-18, more than 7,000 guided anti-tank missiles, 3 OSA air defense missile systems (12 launchers with 924 missiles), 306 ZSU23 air defense guns, 501 BMP-1 armored personnel carriers plus 158 RM-70 rocket launchers (including some 205,000 rockets). At one point the country, pressed by its debts, had to delay deliveries as it could no longer pay for the transport (Deutscher Bundestag, 21 January 1994, p.12).

Deliveries to Turkey are similarly impressive: 4,996 RPG-7 light assault weapons were exported together with 197,139 rounds of ammunition; 303,934 Kalashnikov rifles with at least 83 million rounds of ammunition, more than 2,500 machine guns, and 300 BTR-60 armored personnel carriers including large stocks of ammunition were also delivered. In addition, both countries received other military equipment. Parts I and II of Annex 3 show the major exports from NVA stocks; in addition, major deliveries from Bundeswehr surplus stocks within the same aid package are listed in parts III and IV of that annex.

Both countries are the major recipients of military aid within NATO. They are seen by their allies as important factors of stability in the Eastern Mediterranean and with respect to the Muslim world-Volker Rühe, the German Minister of Defense, has argued, "since the end of the east-west confrontation Turkey and Greece are growing into the role of stabilizing regional powers bordering crisis areas" (Bundesminister der Verteidigung, 7 March 1994)-and they have received substantial amounts of surplus weapons for decades. German military aid programs for Turkey totaled DM 6.243 billion for the 1964-1994 timeframe; German programs in support of Greece totaled DM 2.572 billion (Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, RüT II 1, 5 October 1991; Wehrdienst, 13/1993, p.2). While deliveries before the ratification of the CFE Treaty were normal military exports, later transfers had to be made under the treaty provisions which allow 'cascading.' Within this program, the more modern armed forces with troops deployed at the former Central Front-i.e., in Germany-are allowed to transfer substantial amounts of destined-to-be-destroyed equipment to the countries at NATO's flanks, thus modernizing the equipment standard of their allies within the agreed equipment limits for these countries. If these deliveries cause the recipient country to exceed the agreed holdings in a CFE category, the respective country is also obliged to destroy older TLEs of the same category to meet its treaty commitments. Since not all these limits were met prior to the cascading, this process could led to substantial increases in national holdings in some cases.

Deliveries to both countries are accompanied by the risk of fueling an arms race among poor NATO allies, who have a wide range of potentially conflicting interests (Aegis, Cyprus, Balkans) and whose governments have regularly used foreign policy disputes to overcome internal difficulties. Therefore the main suppliers, Germany and the United States, both apply a policy in which delivered equipment is carefully divided between Greece and Turkey on a proportional basis.

The supply of huge amounts of small weapons and ammunition to Turkey may well contribute to Turkey's war in the Kurdish provinces as well as to severe human rights violations. While the German government argues that Turkey committed itself to not using these weapons for purposes other than NATO defense, the Turkish government has repeatedly pointed out that fighting the Kurdish PKK guerrilla is well within the common tasks of all NATO countries, since they agreed to cooperate in fighting terrorism.

Although the bilateral treaties between Turkey and Germany on the military aid programs clearly state that Turkey is not authorized to re-export weapons received from Germany without Germany's written approval (Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, RüZII 2, 11 November 1993; Bundesministerium der Verteidigung/Ministerium für Nationale Verteidigung der Republik Türkei, 1994, Art. 7, para. 2.), it is possible that Turkey supplied Iraqi Kurds with small arms from former NVA stockpiles. Conversations of the author with humanitarian relief workers, who worked in Iraqi Kurdistan for several years, led to the conclusion, that AK-47s in use with Kurdish militias in Northern Iraq originate from NVA stocks. NVA ammunition also has turned up with with Northern Iraqi Kurdish units. It cannot completely be excluded that Turkey also used deliveries from the former NVA stocks to covertly supply Azerbaijan in its conflicts with Armenia.

Exports to promote exports

Several of the exports of NVA equipment were intertwined with procurement programs of the recipient country from German arms industry. Sweden and Indonesia serve as examples.

In 1994, the German arms industry won a major competition. Sweden, searching for its future main battle tank, evaluated the newest versions of the German Leopard 2, the US M1A2 Abrams, the French Leclerc and the British Challenger tanks. After a lengthy process Sweden finally contracted with German industry for 120 new production tanks for DM 1.2 billion (Wehrdienst 4/1994, p.3), with a possible second lot of 90 vehicles to follow. The choice was allegedly made on the basis of the conditions Germany had offered. The Swedish arms industry would participate in the tank production, and Germany would buy additional equipment from Sweden. Finally-but never directly mentioned-Sweden contracted for cheap surplus weapons of German origin as well. Sweden had already gained an additional 160 ex-German Leopard 2 tanks (out of 200) under a favorable contract in 1994. Roughly 800 of the NVA's MB-LT multi-purpose armored vehicles were also sold to the country for an extraordinarily low price; Sweden will also receive spares from the cannibalization of 228 2S1 self-propelled howitzers (Björck, 1994, p.268; Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 6 April 1994; Foss, 1995, p.13).

Indonesia is another example-39 former East German Navy vessels were sold to Indonesia by January 1993 in a deal very controversial for human rights reasons. The remarkably low price of some US $13 million for all these ships was accompanied by a commitment to partial demilitarization and refurbishment in a German yard-at a cost of US $314 million-and the German company Ferrostahl training 1660 Indonesian naval soldiers. The World Bank criticized the deal, noting that the total costs of the project for Indonesia would be even higher, since remilitarization of the ships at an Indonesian yard would cost another $339 million. The Indonesian yard itself had to modernized for that purpose at the expense of approximately US $119 million and a new harbor had to be built for US $179 million for operating the ships (Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/6512; Wehrtechnik, June 1993; Ziller, 1994; Dudde, 1994; Der Spiegel, 27 September 1993; Dauth, 1993; Dohnany, 1993; Schmalz, 1992).

Despite the process of demilitarization, on four ships the launchers for modern air-defense missiles were 'accidentally' left aboard, and a 5,000 ton spares and ammunition package accompanied the deal.

Spare parts deliveries (selection)

  • 38 spare tubes AK-230 (30mm naval air defense gun)
  • 51 tubes AK-725 (naval AD-gun)
  • 3 30mm AD-guns AK-230 A
  • 2 30mm AD-guns training
  • 2 30mm AD-guns AK-230 B
  • 7320 link for 30mm ammunition
  • 44 spare tubes AK-725
  • 34 spare tubes AK 230
  • 3 gun mounts for 30mm AK-230 A
  • 2 gun mounts for 30mm AK-230 B

Source: Marinekommando Rostock, 1993, p.3.

The Indonesian government also decided to order three new submarines from the German company, Howaldt Deutsche Werk AG, that normally cooperates with Ferrostahl when selling submarines abroad.

Similarly, both Turkey and Greece are long-established and well-known customers of the FRG's arms industries, especially naval industries.

The massive exports from German surplus stocks are somewhat double-edged from a German arms industry perspective. While the German government on the one hand is a cheap competitor for its own arms industries, it also supports the export sales of German industries with cheap, additional equipment. Sometimes this surplus equipment needs to be upgraded or brought up to the recipient country's technology standards by German companies before delivery (Heckmann, 1989, pp.49-50). From an industry perspective, deliveries of very modern equipment may also be perceived as creating a need for next-generation weaponry by the German Bundeswehr earlier than otherwise anticipated.

Examples of additional exports are given in combination with exports supporting actual sales in Annex 5.

Exports for Humanitarian Aid

Large parts of the dual-purpose equipment of the NVA have been exported for civilian or humanitarian use. Trucks, maintenance equipment, clothes, telecommunications or medical and NBC equipment, food and tents have been delivered since 1990. A wide range of countries requested and received former NVA equipment as humanitarian aid-most of the successor states of the former Soviet Union plus 34 other countries and hundreds of organizations from the private sector were listed by the German government in answering parliamentary questions during 1991 and 1992 (Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, Parlamentarischer Staatssekretär, 21 November 1991). In addition to the positive aspects, it must be mentioned that in some cases humanitarian aid was delivered together with the trucks transporting it, simply because the costs of destruction for the trucks according to German laws would be relatively high.

CFE Obligations

Reductions in Treaty Limited Equipment under the CFE categories are occurring through both export and destruction. Thus, the unified Germany continues to fulfill its treaty obligations. By the end of 1993 it was expected that all weapons to be dismantled could be scrapped before 16 November 1995, the deadline by which the CFE signatory countries are committed to completing their reductions.

CFE limits would have allowed the unified Germany to keep some additional TLEs, since the stocks in the former West Germany were below the upper limits allowed for aircraft and attack helicopters. Some last-minute exports and recategorizations contributed to reduced needs for expensive destruction as well. It is not officially known whether exports of former West German TLEs (e.g., Leopard tanks to Turkey, Greece, Sweden, Denmark and Norway; RF-4 aircraft to Greece and Turkey; Alpha Jets to Portugal) have also been used to further reduce the number of weapon systems to be destroyed. As no intention exists to operate the additional weapon systems allowed and therefore even more former West German weapon systems are destined for surplus-of some 2054 Leopard 1, 2124 Leopard 2 and 648 M48A2G tanks available to the Bundeswehr in 1991, it will need only 672 Leopard 1 and 1712 Leopard 2 tanks for the new Army Structure Five (without war reserve stocks) (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1994, Attachment 7)-the German government may store at least some valuable surplus NVA equipment for possible future export and has primarily scrapped older NVA weapons in each category to meet its commitments. Originally the destruction of substantial numbers of modern GDR equipment had been planned (Wehrdienst, 1322/1992, p.4).

Combat aircraft serve as a good example. Under CFE, Germany had to scrap about 140 aircraft and contracted with a subsidiary of DASA, Elbe-Flugzeugwerke in Dresden. The destruction has since then been completed. All aircraft destroyed were older Mig-21 models; not one Mig-23, Su-22 or even Mig-29 has been scheduled for destruction. At the end of 1993, 24 Mig-29s were kept in service with the Bundeswehr, while more than 139 aircraft were either scheduled for export or awaiting a decision. These included most of the later-production Mig-21s as well as all available Mig-23s and SU-22 fighter bombers.

The same procedure can be demonstrated in other areas. CFE obligations are met by destroying the older systems first: T-54s and T-55s instead of T-72s; BTR-152s, BTR-40s and BTR-50s instead of BMP-1s or BMP-2s; 120mm mortars HM and HD-30 howitzers instead of the more capable HD-20, 2S3, RM-70 or BM-21 rocket launchers. It is not yet known whether these more modern system will be dismantled later. The NVA's Mi-24 attack helicopters will also not be scrapped but probably exported, since there is no commitment to destroy them under CFE limits (Zellner, 1994; Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 6 April 1994; Wehrdienst 3/1994, p.4).

One reason for the decision to scrap the older technology systems may have been the lower expense; another reason surely was that newer technology weapons are easier to sell. Thus, only relatively small numbers of TLEs with higher military value may have to be destroyed during the final stages of the destruction period. Consequently the budget proposal for 1995 contains a reduced allocation of DM 219 million for CFE destructions (Deutscher Bundestag, Document 13/50, Einzelplan 14, p.105; Wehrdienst 17/1994, p.1).

While it is not yet clear whether inheriting the NVA has led to a restructuring of Germany's plans to reduce its stockpiles according to CFE, it is possible that a decision to retain older Western equipment and instead destroy Eastern technology weapons has been made.

Other Methods of Demilitarization

Some TLEs from the former NVA have been rendered useless in other ways. During the early months of reunification, a number of major weapon systems were converted into firefighting equipment and other heavy duty civil machinery in former GDR armaments industry facilities for testing purposes. Several aircraft, tanks and other types of equipment have been demilitarized for static display in exhibitions in Germany and other countries (Wehrdienst 13/1993 p.3; Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 6 April 1994, p.13). This includes individual sales to private collections, as well.

Some weapon systems will be used as targets on Bundeswehr training ranges. In some cases, this will affect substantial numbers; for example, 104 T-72 MBTs, 86 heavily armed PT-76s and 50 2S1 self-propelled howitzers were allocated for use as live targets by the end of 1993 (Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 6 April 1994, p.13).


Roughly 300,000 tons of ammunition were inherited from the NVA by the Bundeswehr. While government and media reports concentrate on successful new technologies for dismantling ammunition, analysis shows that at least one-third and maybe more than 40 percent of the former NVA's ammunition stocks have already been exported or are designated for export. The munitions available at the time of unification were listed by the NVA as belonging to the following categories.

In addition to category 1 weapon systems, the Bundeswehr initially intended to use about 30,000, then 16,400, metric tons of NVA ammunition. This figure was reduced to approximately 14,000 tons. No lower figure has since been given publicly, although the number of NVA weapon systems in Bundeswehr use has been consistently reduced.

The future of roughly 280,000 tons of ammunition had to be decided. The larger portion of this ammunition has been dismantled, while the smaller part has been exported-as a general rule, exports took place in combination with deliveries of the weapons for which the ammunition was intended. Examples of such deliveries can be found throughout the tables and annexes of this paper. Not listed in these tables are the exports of ammunition (e.g., torpedoes) to Sweden, where they were destroyed according to Swedish Ordnance, since environmental regulations did not allow Germany to do so domestically within acceptable costs (Wehrtechnik, 21 October 1991, pp. 1-3).

By 31 December 1993 a total of 60,500 tons had been exported, while 109,100 tons had been destroyed. An additional 57,400 tons were awaiting export, while 54,100 tons were awaiting destruction. No explanation is given for the difference of 300 tons from the estimated total (Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, 6 April 1994, pp. 11-12; Annex 5).

The ammunition disposal is expected to be finished by the end of 1995. Since, for security reasons, the Bundeswehr does not intend to transport other countries' surplus ammunitions to the new facilities for ammunition disposal built in the five new Länder, it intends to help the companies who developed these techniques to aggressively market their unique capabilities in other countries.

Table 5: CFE Related Destruction of Weapon Systems (1993)

CFE         Holdings   Holdings   Reduction      -"-         CFE Limit  Scrapped    Remarks                                

Category    notified   notified   Commitment     -"-         for FRG    by 31                                              

1990       1992       calculated     notified*              December                                           


MBT         7,000      7,170      2,834          2,834       4,166      956 /       959                                    

                                                 (2,834)                1,432       additional MBTs                        


ACV/IFV     8,920      9,099      5,474          5,304       3,446      2,074/      2014                                   

                                                 (5,474)                2,087       additional                             



Artillery   4,602      4,735      1,897          2,006       2,705      814 / 842   290                                    

                                                 (1,897)                            additional                             


Attack      258        256        ---            ---         306        ---                                                


Aircraft    1,018      1,040      140            140         900        140 / 140   140 Mig-21,                            

                                                 (118)                              none contracted                        

* Notified reduction commitments are given in two ways
a) as reported by Hartmann (1994)
b) as calculated by the author by comparing holdings in 1990 and FRG limits. the altter is shown in brackets.

** It is astonishing that two widely different sets of figures were given to Parliament in early 1994 about the numbers of weapons destroyed by the end of 1993: Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, 6 April 1994 is in direct contradiction to Deutscher Bundestag, 8 February 1994, p.3. The figure for tanks in that letter was corrected in April 1994. These data are different from those listed by Crawford, 1991 and 1993. The official figures from the Bundeswehr with respect to CFE-related equipment to be destroyed have been reduced several times. See: Ulrich Weiser, Head of the German MoD's Planning Staff, quoted in Defense News (25 March 1991, p.61), as saying that "4,500 main battle tanks, 6,000 armored vehicles, 50 armed helicopters and 150 combat aircraft will have to be destroyed."

Additional sources: Hartmann, et al., 1992, p.397; Frank, 1992, p.31., Hartmann, et al, 1994, p.598.

Table 6: Ammunition Stocks of the NVA

Category of Ammunition               Types       Metric Tons         


Small Arms Ammunition                         92              58,600 

Artillery/Grenade Launchers                   87              52,900 

Rocket Launchers                               6              23,600 

AD-guns and SP-AD guns                        17              21,800 

Tanks, AFV, IFV                               63              66,000 

AT-Weapons                                    12              18,000 

Guided AT-Missiles                             8               1,500 

Short Range AD-Missiles                        4                 500 

Hand Grenades                                  9               8,000 

Engineer Ammunition                           66              16,000 

850,000 AT-mines                                                     

500,000 Directional Mines                                            

Additional munitions & parts                  25               3,000 

Air and Air Defense Forces                                           

1080 Air Defense Missiles                      3               4,378 

17,564 Air-to-Air Missiles                    10               2,429 

711 Air-to-Surface Missiles                    7                 406 

177,346 Air-to-Surface Rockets                 8               1,656 

Bombs                                         15               1,290 

Ammunition for Aircraft Guns                   5                 886 

Naval Forces                                                         

Naval Arty/Naval AD-guns                       5               2,909 

Naval Mines                                    6               2,208 

Depth Bombs                                    2               1,785 

Large explosives/Torpedoes/Parts               5                 685 

Pyrotechnical Ammunition                                             

Signals/Light                                 68               6,000 

Smoke/Fog                                      9                 898 

Total                                                        295,430 

Sources: Machon, 1991, p.38; Heckmann, 1990, p.76. While the Bundeswehr first used figures significantly lower than the NVA numbers (Preißler, 1991), it returned to the NVA estimates and continues to use them. In some cases, the Bundeswehr estimated the ammunition heritage to be even larger, i.e., 350,000 tons. See: Erbe, 1991, p.413.

Costs and Revenues

The income from sales of weapons from former NVA stocks are used to finance the defense budget and especially the dismantling process, which was expected to cost about DM 1.5 billion. According to 1994 figures the Bundeswehr predicted the earnings from sales would total roughly DM 1.5 billion by 1997. As the process of ridding the Bundeswehr of NVA equipment is scheduled to end in 1996, this is also the estimate for the overall total.

Exports of NVA equipment and weapons, even if the estimates for 1994-1997 are too optimistic, thus roughly totaled the price of a single US B-2 bomber.

The German MoD hopes to finish managing the NVA's heritage by the end of 1996. In 1994, several initiatives were begun to make this a realistic date. Whole storage sites containing old NVA equipment have been offered to civil industries willing to empty them and scrap the rest of the equipment still available. Companies accepting these offers will receive the infrastructure plus guards paid by the government for the time in which they commit themselves to emptying a site.

From a Bundeswehr perspective, there is another good reason for speeding up the process of managing the NVA's heritage. The Bundeswehr already must prepare itself for the next round of reductions of weapons and equipment in service. In the post-Cold War era, its manpower has been reduced to 370,000 soldiers; a reduction to 340,000 has been decided and further cuts-possibly to less than 300,000 soldiers-will have to be made during the next years if no significant increases in the defense budget are decided. Constant pressure exists on the defense budget, leading to the investments share falling from a Cold War third of the budget to a fifth under current conditions. With new reductions, substantial numbers of weapon systems will again become available as surplus weapons. The reduced Bundeswehr will no longer need them, and has neither the manpower to operate nor the money to stockpile and maintain them for long periods. They will therefore fuel the surplus weapons market.

Preliminary preparations for future stock reductions are already underway. Indications of this trend include Turkey's receipt of a FH-70 155mm howitzer and a more modern Leopard 1A5 version for field trials and possible future export (Bundesminister der Verteidigung, 10 January 1994).

Table 7: Estimated Earnings from Selling NVA Equipment

(Official estimate for 1990-1997)

Year                 Income from Sales (in DM)                     

1990-1993            595,100,000                                   

1994                 535,300,000*                                  

1995                 278,300,000*                                  

1996                 92,100,000*                                   

1997                 16,000,000*                                   

Total                1,516,800,000*                                

* Estimate.

Sources: Wehrdienst 13/1994, p.4; Wehrdienst 17/1994, p. 1. At the end of 1993, DM 903 million had been spent (DM 170 million for storage and safeguarding; DM 733 million for destruction). In the budget for 1995, the estimated costs for destruction of weapons have been reduced by DM 209 million to DM 178 million, because of reduced needs to scrap weapons and equipment. Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, FüS IV 2, 1994, p.5. The figures given by the Bundeswehr for 1990 to 1993 sales are contradictory, since in another document (Wehrdienst, 13/1994, p.4) the total given was only DM 338 million for the same period.


This article reflects data as available in late 1994, i.e., as of 31 December 1993. The author is especially indebted to a number of jounalists and research colleagues who allowed him to analyse materials they used for their stories. Among them, colleagues of Der Spiegel, Berliner Zeitung and Süddeutsche Zeitung were especially helpful. Research colleagues Erich Schmidt-Eenboom and Hans-Joachim Gießmann, who authored a major book on the NVA in transition (Das unliebsame Erbe, Baden-Baden, 1992), also provided substantial assistance.


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Annex 1

Main Equipment of the NVA-West and East German Accounting Differences

Type of Equipment          GDR         FRG       Difference        Remarks           

                           listing     listing                                     


MBT T-72                   549         551        + 2        FRG numbers vary*     

MBT T-55/T-55A             1,480       1,589      + 109      FRG numbers vary,     

                                                             partially explained   

MBT T-54                   193         198        + 5        FRG numbers vary      


Armored and Armed                                                                  


AFV BMP-1                  1,112       1,133      + 21       FRG numbers vary      

AFV BMP-2                  24          24                                          

APC SPW 40P                299                                                     

APC SPW 40P2               1,579       1,158      - 421      FRG numbers vary,     

                                                             partially explained   

APC SPW 50 PK              199         154        - 45       partially explained   

APC SPW 60 PA/PB           1,468       1,455      - 11       FRG numbers vary      

APC SPW 70                 1,266       1,254      - 12                             

APC SPW 152 W1/K           759         717        - 42       FRG numbers vary      

AFV PT 76                  120         142        + 22       FRG numbers vary      

ARV BRM1 K                 15          10         - 5        FRG numbers vary      

Arm. multi-purpose veh.    529                                                     



Artillery Systems                                                                  

Cannon 85mm                225         180        - 45                             

Cannon 100mm               267         255        - 12                             

Cannon 130mm               175         137        - 38                             

Howitzer 122mm M-30        407         405        - 2        FRG numbers vary      

Howitzer 122mm D-30        395         394        - 1        FRG numbers vary      

Howitzer cannon 152 mm     137         137                                         


SPH SFL 2S1 122mm          374         372        - 2        FRG numbers vary      

SPH SFL 2S3 152mm          96          95         - 1                              

Rocket launcher RM-70      265         261        - 4        FRG numbers vary      

Rocket launcher BM-21      58          59         + 1                              

Missile launcher LUNA      48          69         + 21                             

Missile launcher Totschka  8                                                       

Missile launcher SS-23     ---         ---                   four with 24 msl      

Msl transport vehicle      26                                                      


Msl transport vehicle      94                                                      

LUNA M                                                                             

Grenade launcher 82mm      491         479        - 12                             

Grenade launcher           291         296        + 5        FRG numbers vary      



Air-Defense  Systems                                                               

Launcher SM-65 Dwina       48                                eight complexes       

Launcher SM-90 Wolchow     174                               30 complexes          

Launcher 5P71/73 Newa      40                                ten complexes         

Launcher 5P72 S-200        24                                two complexes         

Launcher 5P85 S-300        12                                one complex           

Launcher 'Krug'            42                                                      

Launcher 'Kub'             107                                                     

Launcher 'OSA-AK'          41                                                      

Msl transport vehicle      240                                                     


Msl transport vehicle      219                                                     


Msl transport vehicle      42                                                      


Portable SAM - Strela-2    1,896                                                   

Portable SAM IGLA          75          75                                          

ZU 23 mm twin AD-gun       924                                                     

ZSU 23/4 Schilka  AD-gun   128         99         - 29                             

Anti-Tank Systems                                                                  

AT missile launch vehicle  48                                                      


AT missile launch vehicle  54          50         - 4                              


AT missile launch vehicle  156         169        + 13                             

9 P133                                                                             

AT missile launch vehicle  52          48         - 4                              


AT missile launcher for    419         393        - 28                             


AT missile launcher for    31          20         - 11                             



Light Arms                                                                         

Machine guns               42,526      40,991     - 1,535                          

----light machine gun                                                              

----heavy machine gun                                                              

Sniper rifles              1,749       1,509      - 240      only once listed by   


Submachine gun 7.62mm      705,032     731,050    + 25,988   FRG numbers vary      


Submachine gun 5.45 mm     163,039     16,3039                                     


Pistol 9mm                 267,125     270,681    + 3,556    difference caused by  


Automatic rifle            3,518       3,862      + 344                            

Automatic grenade          184         173        - 11                             

launcher AGS-17                                                                    

SPG-9 heavy assault        862         n.a.                                        


Light assault weapons      26,526      26,346     - 180                            

     LAW 40mm RPG-7                                                                

     LAW RPG-18            n.a.        n.a.                                        



Mi-24 attack helicopter    51          51                                          

Mi-8 TB armed helicopter   36          n.a.                                        



Mi-14 PL special           8           8                                           

helicopter (Haze)                                                                  

Mi-14 BT special           6           6                                           

helicopter (Haze)                                                                  

Mi-9 special helicopter    8           8                                           

Mi-2 transport helicopter  25          25                                          

Mi-8 transport helicopter  54          93         + 3        FRG counts all Mi-8   




Mig-21                     251         251                                         

Mig-23                     47          45         - 2        difference explained  

Mig-29                     24          24                                          

Mig-23 BN                  18          18                                          

SU-22                      54          54                                          

L-39 training aircraft     52          52                                          

AN-2 transport aircraft    18          n.a.                                        

AN-26 transport aircraft   12          12                                          

L-410 transport aircraft   12          12                                          

TU-134 transport aircraft  3           3                                           

TU-154 transport aircraft  2           2                                           

IL-62 transport aircraft   3           3                                           

Z-43 aircraft              12          n.a.                                        


Naval Weapon Systems                                                               

Koni Class frigate (1159)  3           3                                           

OSA missile corvette       12          12                                          


Tarantul missile corvette  5           5                                           


Balcom 10 missile boats    1           3          + 2        difference explained  


Kondor I                   1                      + 1        difference explained  

minesweeper/patrol boats                                                           

Kondor II minesweeper      20          20                                          


Kondor I                   2           2                                           



Parchim Class Coastal      16          16                                          

Patrol (133.1)                                                                     

Libelle Class (light                                                               

torp. boat)(133.4)                                                                 

FROSCH I Landing  ship     12          12                                          


FROSCH II replenishment    2           2                     renamed as msl boat   

ship (109)                                                   by BW                 

DARSS replenishment ships  5           5                                           


Mob. msl launchers for     10                                                      

coastal def.                                                                       

Harbor tugs                5                                                       

Class 414 harbor tugs      3                                                       

Gustav Königs-Class        2                                                       

harbor tanker                                                                      

Ohre Class accommodation   6                                                       


* Indicates that at different times, different figures for the holdings of this item have been given by the Bundeswehr.

Sources: Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/2026, 1992, Annex 1; Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/1820, 1991; Wehrdienst 41/1993, p.4; Ministerium für Abrüstung und Verteidigung (der DDR), 1990 (author's archive). Where no figure for the Bundeswehr accounting system is listed, the author could not find one.




Annex 2

Small Firearms in NVA Stockpile

Light Arms                  GDR      FRG      Difference  FRG     Remarks             

                                     1992                1994                        


Machine guns                42,526   40,991   - 1,535    55,575                     

Sniper rifles                1,749    1,509     - 240    n.a. listed by FRG only  

                                                              in 1992             

Kalashnikow 7.62mm AK-47    705,03  731,050  + 25,988   783,217 FRG numbers vary    


Kalashnikow 5.45 mm AK-74   163,03  163,039             171,925                     


Pistol 9mm                  267,12  270,681   + 3,556   266,537 diff. caused by     

                                 5                               FRG                 

Automatic rifle              3,518    3,862     + 344     4,279                     

Automatic grenade launcher     184      173      - 11       651                     


Light assault weapons RPG   26,526   26,346     - 180    22,032                     


LAW RPG 18                    n.a.     n.a.                                       

'Small Firearms' are a good example of the confusion about data, which consists of two parts:

1. The Definition Problem

NVA and GDR figures calculating small firearms probably include AK-47s, AK-74s, 9mm pistols, the sniper and automatic rifles plus the machine guns, and thus roughly total 1.2 million weapons at the beginning of 1990-i.e., at a time when the process of bringing stocks from outside the NVA into NVA custody was ongoing.

FRG and Bundeswehr figures include in addition the AGS-17 grenade launcher and the 40mm LAW RPG-7, but for unknown reasons list the sniper rifle only until January 1992. Because the holdings of these weapons were not very large, Bundeswehr totals also were around 1.2 million.

West German Heckler & Koch submachine guns, machine guns and sniper rifles illegally exported to the GDR do not appear in either definition. This also appears to be true for a small number of submachine guns, 'Skorpion,' which were mentioned when taken into Bundeswehr stocks.

2. The Accounting Problem

Neither the NVA nor the Bundeswehr figures used publicly may be viewed as reliable. The problem with the NVA figures is related to their obtainment during the ongoing process of bringing in stocks from other armed groupings in the GDR-totaling some 518,220 weapons according to GDR definitions-which did not allow a complete figure for small firearms to exist within the NVA before the Bundeswehr takeover started. It may have been as low as about 700,000 weapons, but it may have been much higher, between 1 and 1.2 million weapons.

The Bundeswehr/FRG figures may also be completely artificial, since the accounting was accomplished during the process of scrapping and exporting these weapons-this gives the Bundeswehr complete freedom to list or not list weapons without supervising control. To make the problem worse, even the Bundeswehr figures given after the process of scrapping and exporting weapons was completed are inconclusive, and contradict other Bundeswehr reports about exports. Thus, the Bundeswehr figures are likely not trustworthy as well. According to the final figures published by the Bundeswehr in 1994, the unified Germany had scrapped 891,217 small firearms, retained 4,784 and exported another 408,215 weapons of this category (according to the FRG definitions). But after cross-checking with the individual exports reported officially beforehand, this figure proves to be too low:

  • a minimum of 303,934 AK-47s has been exported to Turkey
  • a minimum of 4,996 RPG-7s has been exported to Turkey
  • a minimum of 2,491 light machine guns has been exported to Turkey
  • 100,000 AK-47s have been exported to Finland

This already adds up to more than 411,000 small fire arms exported, excluding lower numbers that were exported to many other countries as well as additional substantial exports-for example, another 7,000 RPG-7 and 2,500 heavy machine guns for Turkey were under consideration and were at least partially delivered by the end of March 1994.

The minimum number of small firearms in NVA stockpiles was therefore about 1.3 million; the highest possible figure may have been around 1.7 million.

Sources: Goldbach, 1990, p.124f.; Ministerium für Nationale Verteidigung(DDR)/MAV, 1990; Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/2026, 1992; Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, RüZ II,2, 1994; Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, 6 April 1994; Scheuer, 1992.

Annex 3

NVA equipment delivered to Greece and Turkey

Part I: NVA Equipment Exported to Turkey

Type of Equipment  Designation         Number Planned      Number Delivered*   


Light MGs                              2,500               2,491               

Ammunition         for Light MG        132,000,000         ?                   

Field hospital                         3                   3                   

Light assault      RPG-7               12,000; later       4,996               

weapons                                5,000                                   

Ammunition for                         250,000             197,139             

RPG 7                                                                          

APC                BTR/SPW-60 PB       300                 300                 

Ammunition 14.5mm  for BTR-60 cannon   30,000,000          4,993,228           

Ammunition 7.62mm  for BTR-60 MG       30,000,000          30,000,000          

Machine pistols    Kalashnikov         256,125             303,934             

Ammunition for     M-43                100,000,000         83,000,000          


Heavy MGs                              2,500               222                 

Ammunition         for Heavy MG        132,000,000         23,878,000          

Mine clearance     KMT-5               20                  20                  


RPG-18                                 100,000             one delivery        


Trucks (ac fuel)   Tatra 815 CA 15     50                                      

Trucks (ac fuel)   Tatra 815 CA 16     100                                     

Decontamination    Various                                                     


Trucks (fire       Tatra               38                                      


Steel helmets                          500,000             500,000             

Trucks             Tatra               800                 perhaps canceled    

Trucks (POL)       Tatra 148 CA-17     30                  perhaps canceled    

Missiles           unnamed             100                                     

Bombs with fuz     unnamed             100                                     

Equipment, other   various             small               incl. 5 SAMs, etc.  

Trucks POL         Tatra               100                                     

Mine laying equip.                     3                   unknown                                 


Tank transporter    Ural 4320 C        90                  unknown                                 

Field hospitals                        3                   unknown                                 

Bridging equipment                     3                   unknown                                 

* Examples for deliveries listed for October 1990 until March, early April 1994

Part II: NVA Equipment Exported to Greece

Type of Equipment  Designation         Number Planned      Number Delivered*   

Search and Rescue  RSB                 5                   5                   


River engineer     BMK-103 M           4                   4                   


AD-gun  23mm       ZU-23               316                 306                 

Ammunition 23mm                        8,000,000           8,000,000           

Ammunition 23 mm                       4,500,000           294,928             

Self-propelled AD  ZSU 23/4            120                 unclear whether     

guns                                                       canceled or 72      


ACV                BMP-1               500                 501                 

Ammunition 73mm    three types         200,000             140,000             

Rocket launcher    RM-70               150                 158                 

Ammunition 122mm   for  RM-70          200,000             205,000             

Air defense msl    OSA-AK              3                   3 (with 12          

systems                                                    launchers)          

AD-missiles        9 K-33 M2 and 3     408, later more     924                 

LAW                RPG-18              21,500              21,675              

AT-missiles        9 M-111 and 9       11,500              7,051               


Ammunition 7.62mm  M-39 and M-43       40,000,000          5,473,712           

Ammunition 7.62mm  M-39                16,210,228          16,210,228          

Light trucks       UAZ 469 B           2,000               292                 

Trucks (POL)       Tatra 815 CA        20                                      

Trucks             Ural D 375          1,000                                   

MT-LB                                  unknown             at least 1          

Multi-purpose      ABPC                500                 probably canceled   

towing veh.                                                                    

Bridging           Ribbon              8                                       


Electrical         GAB-2, GAD-40 etc.  200                                     


Field kitchens                         650                                     

Camouflage nets    different types     230,000             114,357             

NBC-protection                         260,000             260,000             


Trucks             LO 2002 A           56                  56                  

Additional         different types     small               small               


* Examples for deliveries listed for October 1990 until March/April 1994

Bundeswehr equipment delivered to Greece and Turkey

Part III: Surplus FRG Equipment Exported to Turkey

Type of Equipment    Designation       Number Planned   Number Delivered*   


Air defense guns     20mm twin gun     300              300                 

Ammunition AD gun    1 DM-81           4,000            4,000               


Ammunition AD gun    4 DM-101          16,000           16,000              


Steel helmets                          500,000          500,000 (NVA?)      

Main battle tanks    Leopard 1         85 + 85          170                 

APC                  M-113             350 + 137        537                 

Bridge-laying tanks  M-48              10 + 10          20                  

Engineer tanks       M-48 A2G1         20               20                  

ARV tanks            M-88              20               20                  

Ammunition 105mm     DM-23 KE          100,000          100,000             

Ammunition 105mm     DM-456 HEAT       15,000           15,000              

Surface to Air       Redeye            300              300                 


Howitzers 203mm      M110              131              131                 

Ammunition 203mm     HE                30,000           30,000              

Ammunition 203mm     Bomblet           9,900            9,900               

Ammunition 175mm     DM-12 and DM-21   68,004           68,004              

AA-missiles          Sidewinder AIM    1,000            1,000               


Ammunition 40mm for  DM-28             138,000          138,000             


Ammunition 40mm for  DM-31             257,000          257,000             


AD guns              L-70              260              260                 

RPV-systems          CL-89             unspecified      unspecified         

Aircraft             RF-4              46               46                  

* Examples for Deliveries listed for October 1990 until April 1994

Part IV: Surplus FRG Equipment Exported to Greece

Type of Equipment  Designation         Number Planned      Number Delivered*   


Support ship       Class 701           1                   1                   

Landing boats      Class 521           11                  11                  

Landing boats      Class 520           2                   2                   

Harbor tug         Class 723           5                   5                   

Torpedo recovery   Class 430           2                   2 (plus 2           

vessel                                                     delivered earlier)  

Tetis Class        Class 420           5                   5                   


FPB                Class 148           2                   2                   

Machine gun        MG-3                75                  75                  

AD guns 20mm       20mm twin gun       546                 546                 

Ammunition 20mm    DM-101              1,092,000           1,092,000           

Ammunition 20mm    DM-81               1,092,000           1,092,000           

Aircraft           RF-4 E              20 (plus 7 in       20 (plus 7 in       

                                       spares)             spares)             

Aircraft           F-104 G             12 (plus more       12 (plus more       

                                       earlier)            earlier)            

Naval mines        DM-21/DM-39         n.a.                150                 

Machine guns       MG-3 and MG-3 A1    675                 675                 

Howitzers          M-110 (203mm)       88                  72                  

Main battle tanks  Leopard 1 GR2       75                  75                  

ARV                M-88                25                  25                  

Tank (bridging)                        10                  10                  

APC                M-113               200                 200                 

Camouflage nets    different types     230,000             114,357             

* Examples of deliveries listed for October 1990 until April 1994

Sources: Bundesministerium der Verteidung, 15 April 1994, Attachment (an older version of this computer printout from the MoD, dating from 2 December 1993, was used to check the reliability); Wehrdienst 1315/1992 pp. 2-4; Wehrdienst 28/1993, p.4; Wehrdienst 13/1993, p.2; Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, 22 February 1991.



Annex 4

Examples of NVA Deliveries for Technical Intelligence, Testing and Evaluation Purposes

Type of Equipment        Number    Year       Recipient Remarks                

AT-missiles and          about 20  n.a.       France    different types,

launchers                                               partly on vehicles,    

                                                        delivery intended      

Small fire arms                                         different types        

SS-missile Frog-7        2                    France    intended for delivery  

Telecommunications       various              France    probably delivered     


IFF-Systems SRZO-2       3         1990       Israel                           

SSM P-15                 1         1990       Israel                           

SSM P-21                 1         1990       Israel                           

SSM P-22                 1         1990       Israel                           

Air-to-air missiles      7 or 8    1990       Israel    AA-8, AA-10a and b,    

                                                        AA-11 and AA-7 were    


Air-to-surface missiles  6         1990       Israel    CH-25ML, MR; CH-29L,T  

                                                        and CH-58Ä were        


Radar for Mig-29         1         1990       Israel    returned in 1991       

SAM SA-5 Seeker          1         1990       Israel                           


SAM SA-13                3         1990       Israel    likely to have         

                                                        included launcher      


Spares T-72 tank                   1990/1991  Israel                           

FROG-7 warheads          n.a.      1990       Israel    two types available    

Mine clearance equip.                         Israel    EMT-7 and KMT-6 most   

                                                        likely included        

Range finders            3                    Israel                           

Laser recon. system      1                    Israel                           


Radar 'Big Fred'         1         1990 or    Israel                           


AT-missiles              15        1991       Israel    AT-3,-4 and 5          


SA-16                                         Israel    launcher and missiles  

AP- and AT-mines         ca 100    1991       Israel                           

Spares Mig-23            1         1991       Israel    included engine, ext.  


Torpedo SAET 40          2         1991       Israel                           

ECM-Pod                  1         1991       Israel                           

SA-6 reconnaissance +    1         1991/1992  Israel    intercepted in         

fire control                                            Hamburg                

SA-6 launch vehicle      1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)              

Long track radar P40     1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg) adv. ECCM    


AD-gun ZSU 23/4          2         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)              

Schilka maintenance      1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)              


Truck KRAZ 214           2         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)              

Truck KRAZ B-255         2         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg; msl trsp.    

                                                        veh. P21 P22 missiles  


Truck Zil 157            1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg) msl trsp.    

                                                        veh. P15?              

Truck Zil 131            1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg) msl trsp.    

                                                        veh. P 15?             

Truck GAZ 66             2         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)              

Light truck UAZ 469      2         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)                                                                                                          

Spares for BMP-2         1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)                                                                                                          

Spares for BMP-1         1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)                                                                                                          

Chaff and flares         1         1991/1992  Israel    (Hamburg)                                                                                                          


Mine clearance equip.    2         1990       UK                                                                                                                           


AT-missiles                        1991       UK        AT-4 and AT-7                                                                                                      

Small arms               27        1991       UK        different types        

Fighterbomber SU-22 M4   1         1991       UK                               

SSM P21 with seeker      1         1991       UK                               


SSM P22  with seeker     1         1991       UK                               


Missile launcher RUBESH  1         1991       UK                               

Torpedo SAET-40          2         1991       UK                               

Naval mines                        1991       UK        different types        

Chaff and flare          1         1991       UK                               

dispenser PK-16                                                                

AD-gun  AK-630           1         1991       UK                               

SSM P-15                 1         1991       UK                               

Fighter bomber Mig-23BN  1         1992       UK                               

SSM P21/P22              1         1992       NL        one each               

Torpedo SAET-40          1         1992       NL                               

FROG-7 SS-missile        1         1992       USA       launcher,  four msl,   

system                                                  two warheads           

Mine clearance equip.    1         1991       USA                              


Mine clearance equip.    2         1991       USA                              


Funkstörgranate DZW 90   12        1991       USA       different types        

AP-mines PMP-2           192       1991       USA                              

AT-mines TM-46           120       1991       USA                              

AT-mines TM-62 M         128       1991       USA                              

AT-mines TM-62 P3        112       1991       USA                              

SA-13 missile            6         1991       USA                              

SA-8 missile             12        1991       USA                              

Battlefield surv. radar  1         1991       USA                              


Acc. measurem. sys.      1         1991       USA                              


AAM AA-8                 1         1990       USA                              

AAM AA-10                1         1990       USA                              

AAM AA-11                2         1990/1991  USA                              

AAM AA-7 Guidance        1         1991       USA                              

Mig-29 fighter ac.       1         1991       USA       returned               

Mig-29 engines           2         1991       USA                              

Mig-29 pilot helmet      1         1991       USA                              

Spares package for       1         1991       USA                              


SSM P21 with seeker      1         1991       USA                              


SSM P22 with seeker      1         1991       USA                              


SAM SA-5 missiles        ?         ?          USA       planned                

ASM CH-25                3         1990       USA       three types            

ASM CH-29                2         1990       USA       two types              

ASM CH-58                6         1991       USA                              

ASM CH-25                2         1991       USA                              

Tarantul Class corvette  1         1991       USA                              

MI-14 Haze helicopter    2         1991       USA       Naval ASW version      

Naval mines              11        1992       USA       different types        

AD-gun AK-630            1         1992       USA                              

Torpedo SAET 40          2         1992       USA                              

Chaff and flare          1         1992       USA                              

dispenser PK-16                                                                


Note: Most deliveries to Israel listed here are widely confirmed; additional Israeli requests have been approved since the end of 1991; probably additional deliveries not listed have been taking place. All deliveries to Israel are loans. Information on France is somewhat uncertain since parliament was informed only during preparations for delivery. UK information seems to be solid although more may have been supplied; US information is probably reliable.


Sources: Deutscher Bundestag, 2 December 1991; Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, 10 December 1991; Kolbow/Stoltenberg, 1992; Gießmann, 1992, pp. 235-237; notes by journalist colleagues cross-checked by interviews with members of parliament and their researchers. UK and US information is mainly based on two detailed computer printouts (archives of a journalist colleague), German MoD, 6 December 1991; also, United Nations General Assembly, 1992 and 1993.

Examples of Deliveries to the United States for Training Purposes

Type of Equipment           Number     Year       Remarks                     

T-72 MBT                    59         1991                                   

T-72 MBT                    27         1993                                   

T-55 MBT                    11         1991                                   

BMP-1 AFV                   19         1991                                   

BMP-2 AFV                   15         1991                                   

BMP                         2          1993                                   

MB-LT                       14         1991                                   

MTP-LB                      3          1991                                   

BTR-70                      5          1991                                   

BTR-70                      2          1993                                   

BTR-60 PB                   3          1991                                   

BTR-50 PK                   1          1991                                   

BTR-40 P2                   2          1991                                   

BTR-40 with 9 P148          5          1991                                   


122mm howitzer D-30         1          1991                                   

152mm howitzer D-20         2          1991                                   

SPH 2S1                     5          1991                                   

SPH 2S1                     6          1993                                   

SPH 2S3                     5          1991                                   

SPH 2S3                     4          1993                                   

RM-70 MRL                   2          1991                                   

BM-21 MRL                   4          1991                                   

AKLPz BRDM-1K               2          1991                                   

BM-24                       2          1991                                   

100mm canon (AT)            7          1991                                   

Mig-23 ML/MLD aircraft      5          1991                                   

Mig 23                      9          1993                                   

SU-22 M4 aircraft           2          1991                                   

Su-22                       2          1993                                   

Mi-24 helicopters           2          1991                                   

Mi-24                       1          1992                                   

SAM 9M33M3                  72         1991                                   

SAM launcher 9A 338         12         1991                                   

120mm grenade launcher      1          1991                                   

Ammunitions                 small      1991       100mm, 125mm, 122mm,        

                                                  various versions            

Trucks                                 1991       various                     

Guided missiles             182        1992       various, not specified      


Note: Officially most of these deliveries have been categorized as being intended "for training purposes." It may be assumed that they have served technical intelligence purposes as well. They represent NVA army equipment otherwise not listed in the technical intelligence context. In addition, some items listed here have been exported in such small amounts that they may have been used for technical intelligence purposes but probably not for training purposes.


Sources: United Nations General Assembly, 1992 and 1993; Wehrdienst 13/1993, p.4; Berliner Zeitung, 17 January 1992; computer printout from the German MoD, "Ausbildung," 6 December 1991 (archives of a journalist colleague); Der Spiegel 47/1991, p.26; Gießmann, 1992, p.236.

Annex 5

Examples of Additional Exports from NVA Stocks

Type of Equipment         Number   Year      Recipient Remarks                   

Spares from SPH 2S1       228      1994/5    Sweden                              

MB-LT Armored Personnel   809 ?    1992-??   Sweden   5 in 1992, 9 in 1993       


T-72 MBT                  5        1992      Sweden                              

BMP-1                     5        1993      Sweden   planned                    

A/S- missiles S5          8        1992      Sweden   item not clearly           


T-72 MBT                  8        1992      Canada                              

T-72 MBT                  1        1992      Belgium                             

T-55 MBT                  1        1992      Belgium                             

BMP-1                     1        1992      Belgium                             

BTR-70                    1        1992      Belgium                             

SPH 122mm                 2        1992      Belgium                             

Mig-21                    1        1992      Belgium                             

Mig-23                    1        1992      Belgium                             

Parchim Class             16       1993/94   Indonesi                            


FROSCH I class landing    12       1993/94   Indonesi                            

ships                                        a                                   

FROSCH II class supply    2        1993/94   Indonesi                            

ships                                        a                                   

Kondor-II Class miners    9        1993/94   Indonesi                            


Spares and ammunition     5,000    1993-95   Indonesi only incomplete details    

(tons)                                       a        known, fitting with ships  

Electrical generators     75       1994/95   Indonesi                            


Field kitchens            150      1994/95   Indonesi                            


Kondor Class              1        1991/92   Guinea   demilitarized; via         

                                                      illegal deal               

Kondor-II Class           4        1991/2    Uruguay  without weapon systems     

Tug (unspecified)         1        1991      Uruguay                             

Piast Class               1        1991      Uruguay                             

Mi-24 attck helicopters   30-40    1995/6    Hungary  planned                    

Medical equipment for 3   n.a.     1992      Hungary                             


PTS                       6        1993      Hungary                             

Kondor-I Class coastal    4        1992      Tunisia  BGS stocks                 

patrol boat                                                                      

Bremse Class CPB          5        1992      Tunisia  BGS stocks                 

Kondor-I Class CPB        2        1992      Malta    BGS stocks; corruption     


Bremse Class CPB          2        1992      Malta    BGS stocks; corruption     


SAB-12 Class CPB          5        1992      Cyprus   BGS stocks                 

Bremse Class CPB          2        1992      Jordan   BGS stocks                 

OSA Class                 6        1993      Estonia  partially demilitarized    

Kondor-I Class            2        1993      Estonia  partially demilitarized*   

OSA Class                 3        1993      Lithuani partially demilitarized    


Kondor-I Class            1        1993      Lithuani partially demilitarized    


Kondor-II Class           2        1993      Latvia   partially demilitarized    

OSA Class                 3        1993      Latvia   partially demilitarized    

OSA and Kondor            4        1993      Lithuani intended                   


Trucks                    200      1992/3    Estonia                             

Trucks                    200      1992/3    Latvia                              

Trucks                    200      1993      Lithuani possibly not all           

                                             a        delivered                  

L-410 transport aircraft  2        1992/3    Estonia                             

L-410  transport          2        1993      Latvia                              


L-410 transport aircraft  2        1993      Lithuani                            


Trucks                    9,000    1992      CIS      i.e., Russia, Ukraine,     


AK-47 Kalashnikows        100,000            Finland                             

MBT T-72                  100      1991/2    Finland                             

Artillery                 447      1993      Finland  incl. 218 HD-30 howitzers  


BMP-1                     110      1993      Finland                             

MB-LT                     3        1992      Finland                             

Ammunition                46,000             Finland  tons                       


BTR 70                    149 +    149       UN       for UNPROFOR               

AK-74                     1        1991      NL                                  

AK-47                     1        1991      NL                                  

AK-74                     1        1991      Spain    with 50 rounds ammunition  

AK-47                     1        1991      Spain    with 50 rounds ammunition  

KM-46 130mm mortar        92       1994/5    GR/US/FI not clear from source,     

                                             /SW      possibly Finland, planned  

Iljuschin -62             3        1993      Egypt    private businessman        

Sources: Deutscher Bundestag, Document 12/1820, 1991; Deutscher Bundestag, 21 January 1994, p.12; Feldmayer, 1992; Schibli, 1992; Casdorf, 1992; Der Spiegel 29/1994, p.16; Gießmann, 1992, pp. 211-248; Mierzwa, 1993, pp. 59-69; Thielbeer, 1992.
Deutscher Bundestag, Verteidigungsausschuß, Unterausschuß 'Streitkräftefragen in den neuen Bundesländern,' Protokoll der 18. Sitzung. pp.8+.