1. The present Code applies to the crimes against the peace and security of mankind set out in Part II.
2. Crimes against the peace and security of mankind are crimes under international law and punishable as such, whether or not they are punishable under national law.
1. A crime against the peace and security of mankind entails individual responsibility.
2. An individual shall be responsible for the crime of aggression in accordance with article 16.
3. An individual shall be responsible for a crime set out in article 17, 18, 19 or 20 if that individual:
(b) orders the commission of such a crime which in fact occurs or is attempted;
(c) fails to prevent or repress the commission of such a crime in the circumstances set out in article 6;
(d) knowingly aids, abets or otherwise assists, directly and substantially, in the commission of such a crime, including providing the means for its commission;
(e) directly participates in planning or conspiring to commit such a crime which in fact occurs;
(f) directly and publicly incites another individual to commit such a crime which in fact occurs;
(g) attempts to commit such a crime by taking action commencing the execution of a crime which does not in fact occur because of circumstances independent of his intentions.
An individual who is responsible for
a crime against the peace and security of mankind shall be liable to punishment.
The punishment shall be commensurate with the character and gravity of
The fact that the present Code provides
for the responsibility of individuals for crimes against the peace and
security of mankind is without prejudice to any question of the responsibility
of States under international law.
The fact that an individual charged
with a crime against the peace and security of mankind acted pursuant to
an order of a Government or a superior does not relieve him of criminal
responsibility, but may be considered in mitigation of punishment if justice
The fact that a crime against the peace
and security of mankind was committed by a subordinate does not relieve
his superiors of criminal responsibility, if they knew or had reason to
know, in the circumstances at the time, that the subordinate was committing
or was going to commit such a crime and if they did not take all necessary
measures within their power to prevent or repress the crime.
The official position of an individual
who commits a crime against the peace and security of mankind, even if
he acted as head of State or Government, does not relieve him of criminal
responsibility or mitigate punishment.
Without prejudice to the jurisdiction
of an international criminal court, each State Party shall take such measures
as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the crimes set out
in articles 17, 18, 19 and 20, irrespective of where or by whom those crimes
were committed. Jurisdiction over the crime set out in article 16 shall
rest with an international criminal court. However, a State referred to
in article 16 is not precluded from trying its nationals for the crime
set out in that article.
Without prejudice to the jurisdiction
of an international criminal court, the State Party in the territory of
which an individual alleged to have committed a crime set out in articles
17, 18, 19 or 20 is found shall extradite or prosecute that individual.
1. To the extent that the crimes set out in articles 17, 18, 19 and 20 are not extraditable offences in any extradition treaty existing between States Parties, they shall be deemed to be included as such therein. States Parties undertake to include those crimes as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
2. If a State Party which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may at its option consider the present Code as the legal basis for extradition in respect of those crimes. Extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided in the law of the requested State.
3. State Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize those crimes as extraditable offences between themselves subject to the conditions provided in the law of the requested State.
4. Each of those crimes shall be treated,
for the purpose of extradition between States Parties, as if it had been
committed not only in the place in which it occurred but also in the territory
of any other State Party.
1. An individual charged with a crime against the peace and security of mankind shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty and shall be entitled without discrimination to the minimum guarantees due to all human beings with regard to the law and the facts and shall have the rights:
(b) to be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him;
(c) to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;
(d) to be tried without undue delay;
(e) to be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have legal assistance assigned to him and without payment by him if he does not have sufficient means to pay for it;
(f) to examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
(g) to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court;
(h) not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.
2. An individual may not be tried again for a crime of which he has been finally convicted or acquitted by a national court except in the following cases:
(ii) the national court proceedings were not impartial or independent or were designed to shield the accused from international criminal responsibility or the case was not diligently prosecuted;
(b) by a national court of another State,
(ii) that State was the main victim of the crime.
1. No one shall be convicted under the present Code for acts committed before its entry into force.
2. Nothing in this article precludes
the trial of anyone for any act which, at the time when it was committed,
was criminal in accordance with international law or national law.
The competent court shall determine
the admissibility of defences in accordance with the general principles
of law, in the light of the character of each crime.
In passing sentence, the court shall,
where appropriate, take into account extenuating circumstances in accordance
with the general principles of law.
An individual who, as leader or organizer,
actively participates in or orders the planning, preparation, initiation
or waging of aggression committed by a State shall be responsible for a
crime of aggression.
A crime of genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such:
(b) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
(e) persecution on political, racial, religious or ethnic grounds;
(f) institutionalized discrimination on racial, ethnic or religious grounds involving the violation of fundamental human rights and freedoms and resulting in seriously disadvantaging a part of the population;
(g) arbitrary deportation or forcible transfer of population;
(h) arbitrary imprisonment;
(i) forced disappearance of persons;
(j) rape, enforced prostitution and other forms of sexual abuse;
(k) other inhumane acts which severely damage physical or mental integrity, health or human dignity, such as mutilation and severe bodily harm.
1. The following crimes constitute crimes against the peace and security of mankind when committed intentionally and in a systematic manner or on a large scale against United Nations and associated personnel involved in a United Nations operation with a view to preventing or impeding that operation from fulfilling its mandate:
(b) violent attack upon the official premises, the private accommodation or the means of transportation of any such personnel likely to endanger his or her person or liberty.
Any of the following war crimes constitutes a crime against the peace and security of mankind when committed in a systematic manner or on a large scale:
(ii) torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments;
(iii) wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health;
(iv) extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly;
(v) compelling a prisoner of war or other protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power;
(vi) wilfully depriving a prisoner of war or other protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial;
(vii) unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of protected persons;
(viii) taking of hostages;
(ii) launching an indiscriminate attack affecting the civilian population or civilian objects in the knowledge that such attack will cause excessive loss of life, injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects;
(iii) launching an attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces in the knowledge that such attack will cause excessive loss of life, injury to civilians or damage to civilian objects;
(iv) making a person the object of attack in the knowledge that he is hors de combat;
(v) the perfidious use of the distinctive
emblem of the red cross, red crescent or red lion and sun or of other recognized
(ii) unjustifiable delay in the repatriation
of prisoners of war or civilians;
(e) any of the following acts committed
in violation of the laws or customs of war:
(ii) wanton destruction of cities, towns or villages, or devastation not justified by military necessity;
(iii) attack, or bombardment, by whatever means, of undefended towns, villages, dwellings or buildings or of demilitarized zones;
(iv) seizure of, destruction of or wilful damage done to institutions dedicated to religion, charity and education, the arts and sciences, historic monuments and works of art and science;
(v) plunder of public or private property;
(ii) collective punishments;
(iii) taking of hostages;
(iv) acts of terrorism;
(v) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment, rape, enforced prostitution and any form of indecent assault;
(vii) the passing of sentences and the
carrying out of executions without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly
constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are generally
recognized as indispensable;
Text adopted by the Commission at its forty-eighth session, in 1996, and submitted to the General Assembly as a part of the Commission's report covering the work of that session. The report (A/48/10), which also contains commentaries on the draft articles, will be published in Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1996, vol. II(2).