The Contracting Parties to the present Protocol,
Being Parties to the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean
Sea against Pollution, adopted at Barcelona on 16 February 1976,
Conscious of the profound impact of human activities on the state of
the marine environment and the littoral and more generally on the
ecosystems of areas having prevailing Mediterranean features,
Stressing the importance of protecting and, as appropriate, improving
the state of the Mediterranean natural and cultural heritage, in
particular through the establishment of specially protected areas and
also by the protection and conservation of threatened species,
Considering the instruments adopted by the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development and particularly the Convention on
Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992),
Conscious that when there is a threat of significant reduction or loss
of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not
be invoked as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize
such a threat,
Considering that all the Contracting Parties should cooperate to
conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of ecosystems
and that they have, in this respect, common but differentiated
Have agreed as follows:
PART I GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1 DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) "Convention" means the Convention for the Protection of the
Mediterranean Sea against Pollution, adopted at Barcelona on 16
February 1976 and amended at Barcelona in 1995;
(b) "Biological diversity" means the variability among living organisms
from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other
aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part;
this includes diversity within species, between species and of
(c) "Endangered species" means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or part of its range;
(d) "Endemic species" means any species whose range is restricted to a limited geographical area;
(e) "Threatened species" means any species that is likely to become
extinct within the foreseeable future throughout all or part of its
range and whose survival is unlikely if the factors causing numerical
decline or habitat degradation continue to operate;
(f) "Conservation status of a species" means the sum of the influences
acting on the species that may affect its long-term distribution and
(g) "Parties" means the Contracting Parties to this Protocol;
(h) "Organization" means the organization referred to in Article 2 of the Convention;
(i) "Centre" means the Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas.
Article 2 GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE
1. The area to which this Protocol applies shall be the area of the
Mediterranean Sea as delimited in Article 1 of the Convention. It also
- the seabed and its subsoil;
- the waters, the seabed and its subsoil on the landward side of the
baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured and
extending, in the case of watercourses, up to the freshwater limit;
- the terrestrial coastal areas designated by each of the Parties, including wetlands.
2. Nothing in this Protocol nor any act adopted on the basis of this
Protocol shall prejudice the rights, the present and future claims or
legal views of any State relating to the law of the sea, in particular,
the nature and the extent of marine areas,the delimitation of marine
areas between States with opposite or adjacent coasts, freedom of
navigation on the high seas, the right and the modalities of passage
through straits used for international navigation and the right of
innocent passage in territorial seas, as well as the nature and extent
of the jurisdiction of the coastal State, the flag State and the port
3. No act or activity undertaken on the basis of this Protocol shall
constitute grounds for claiming, contending or disputing any claim to
national sovereignty or jurisdiction.
Article 3 GENERAL OBLIGATIONS
1. Each Party shall take the necessary measures to:
(a) protect, preserve and manage in a sustainable and environmentally
sound way areas of particular natural or cultural value, notably by the
establishment of specially protected areas;
(b) protect, preserve and manage threatened or endangered species of flora and fauna.
2. The Parties shall cooperate, directly or through the competent
international organizations, in the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity in the area to which this Protocol applies.
3. The Parties shall identify and compile inventories of the components
of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable
4. The Parties shall adopt strategies, plans and programmes for the
conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of marine
and coastal biological resources and shall integrate them into their
relevant sectoral and intersectoral policies.
5. The Parties shall monitor the components of biological diversity
referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article and shall identify processes
and categories of activities which have or are likely to have a
significant adverse impact on the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity, and monitor their effects.
6. Each Party shall apply the measures provided for in this Protocol
without prejudice to the sovereignty or the jurisdiction of other
Parties or other States. Any measures taken by a Party to enforce these
measures shall be in accordance with international law.
PART II PROTECTION OF AREAS
SECTION ONE - SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS
Article 4 OBJECTIVES
The objective of specially protected areas is to safeguard:
(a) representative types of coastal and marine ecosystems of adequate
size to ensure their long-term viability and to maintain their
(b) habitats which are in danger of disappearing in their natural area
of distribution in the Mediterranean or which have a reduced natural
area of distribution as a consequence of their regression or on account
of their intrinsically restricted area;
(c) habitats critical to the survival, reproduction and recovery of endangered, threatened or endemic species of flora or fauna;
(d) sites of particular importance because of their scientific, aesthetic, cultural or educational interest.
Article 5 ESTABLISHMENT OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS
1. Each Party may establish specially protected areas in the marine and
coastal zones subject to its sovereignty or jurisdiction.
2. If a Party intends to establish, in an area subject to its
sovereignty or national jurisdiction, a specially protected area
contiguous to the frontier and to the limits of a zone subject to the
sovereignty or national jurisdiction of another Party, the competent
authorities of the two Parties shall endeavour to cooperate, with a
view to reaching agreement on the measures to be taken and shall, inter
alia, examine the possibility of the other Party establishing a
corresponding specially protected area or adopting any other
3. If a Party intends to establish, in an area subject to its
sovereignty or national jurisdiction, a specially protected area
contiguous to the frontier and to the limits of a zone subject to the
sovereignty or national jurisdiction of a State that is not a Party to
this Protocol, the Party shall endeavour to cooperate with that State
as referred to in the previous paragraph.
4. If a State which is not party to this Protocol intends to establish
a specially protected area contiguous to the frontier and to the limits
of a zone subject to the sovereignty or national jurisdiction of a
Party to this Protocol, the latter shall endeavour to cooperate with
that State as referred to in paragraph 2.
Article 6 PROTECTION MEASURES
The Parties, in conformity with international law and taking into
account the characteristics of each specially protected area, shall
take the protection measures required, in particular:
(a) the strengthening of the application of the other Protocols to the
Convention and of other relevant treaties to which they are Parties;
(b) the prohibition of the dumping or discharge of wastes and other
substances likely directly or indirectly to impair the integrity of the
specially protected area;
(c) the regulation of the passage of ships and any stopping or anchoring;
(d) the regulation of the introduction of any species not indigenous to
the specially protected area in question, or of genetically modified
species, as well as the introduction or reintroduction of species which
are or have been present in the specially protected area;
(e) the regulation or prohibition of any activity involving the
exploration or modification of the soil or the exploitation of the
subsoil of the land part, the seabed or its subsoil;
(f) the regulation of any scientific research activity;
(g) the regulation or prohibition of fishing, hunting, taking of
animals and harvesting of plants or their destruction, as well as trade
in animals, parts of animals, plants, parts of plants, which originate
in specially protected areas;
(h) the regulation and if necessary the prohibition of any other
activity or act likely to harm or disturb the species or that might
endanger the state of conservation of the ecosystems or species or
might impair the natural or cultural characteristics of the specially
(i) any other measure aimed at safeguarding ecological and biological processes and the landscape.
Article 7 PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
1. The Parties shall, in accordance with the rules of international
law, adopt planning, management, supervision and monitoring measures
for the specially protected areas.
2. Such measures should include for each specially protected area:
(a) the development and adoption of a management plan that specifies
the legal and institutional framework and the management and protection
(b) the continuous monitoring of ecological processes, habitats,
population dynamics, landscapes, as well as the impact of human
(c) the active involvement of local communities and populations, as
appropriate, in the management of specially protected areas, including
assistance to local inhabitants who might be affected by the
establishment of such areas;
(d) the adoption of mechanisms for financing the promotion and
management of specially protected areas, as well as the development of
activities which ensure that management is compatible with the
objectives of such areas;
(e) the regulation of activities compatible with the objectives for
which the specially protected area was established and the terms of the
(f) the training of managers and qualified technical personnel, as well as the development of an appropriate infrastructure.
3. The Parties shall ensure that national contingency plans incorporate
measures for responding to incidents that could cause damage or
constitute a threat to the specially protected areas.
4. When specially protected areas covering both land and marine areas
have been established, the Parties shall endeavour to ensure the
coordination of the administration and management of the specially
protected area as a whole.
SECTION TWO - SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS OF MEDITERRANEAN IMPORTANCE
Article 8 ESTABLISHMENT OF THE LIST OF SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS
OF MEDITERRANEAN IMPORTANCE
1. In order to promote cooperation in the management and conservation
of natural areas, as well as in the protection of threatened species
and their habitats, the Parties shall draw up a "List of Specially
Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance", hereinafter referred to
as the "SPAMI List".
2. The SPAMI List may include sites which:
- are of importance for conserving the components of biological diversity in the Mediterranean;
- contain ecosystems specific to the Mediterranean area or the habitats of endangered species;
- are of special interest at the scientific, aesthetic, cultural or educational levels.
3. The Parties agree:
(a) to recognize the particular importance of these areas for the Mediterranean;
(b) to comply with the measures applicable to the SPAMIs and not to
authorize nor undertake any activities that might be contrary to the
objectives for which the SPAMIs were established.
Article 9 PROCEDURE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND LISTING OF SPAMIs
1. SPAMIs may be established, following the procedure provided for in
paragraph 2 to 4 of this Article, in: (a) the marine and coastal zones
subject to the sovereignty or jurisdiction of the Parties; (b) zones
partly or wholly on the high seas.
2. Proposals for inclusion in the List may be submitted:
(a) by the Party concerned, if the area is situated in a zone already
delimited, over which it exercises sovereignty or jurisdiction;
(b) by two or more neighbouring Parties concerned if the area is situated, partly or wholly, on the high sea;
(c) by the neighbouring Parties concerned in areas where the limits of
national sovereignty or jurisdiction have not yet been defined.
3. Parties making proposals for inclusion in the SPAMI List shall
provide the Centre with an introductory report containing information
on the area's geographical location, its physical and ecological
characteristics, its legal status, its management plans and the means
for their implementation, as well as a statement justifying its
(a) where a proposal is formulated under subparagraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c)
of this Article, the neighbouring Parties concerned shall consult each
other with a view to ensuring the consistency of the proposed
protection and management measures, as well as the means for their
(b) proposals made under paragraph 2 of this Article shall indicate the
protection and management measures applicable to the area as well as
the means of their implementation.
4. The procedure for inclusion of the proposed area in the List is the following:
(a) for each area, the proposal shall be submitted to the National
Focal Points, which shall examine its conformity with the common
guidelines and criteria adopted pursuant to Article 16;
(b) if a proposal made in accordance with subparagraph 2 (a) of this
Article is consistent with the guidelines and common criteria, after
assessment, the Organization shall inform the meeting of the Parties,
which shall decide to include the area in the SPAMI List;
(c) if a proposal made in accordance with subparagraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c)
of this Article is consistent with the guidelines and common criteria,
the Centre shall transmit it to the Organization, which shall inform
the meeting of the Parties. The decision to include the area in the
SPAMI list shall be taken by consensus by the Contracting Parties,
which shall also approve the management measures applicable to the area.
5. The Parties which proposed the inclusion of the area in the List
shall implement the protection and conservation measures specified in
their proposals in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article. The
Contracting Parties undertake to observe the rules thus laid down. The
Centre shall inform the competent international organizations of the
List and of the measures taken in the SPAMIs.
6. The Parties may revise the SPAMI List. To this end, the Centre shall prepare a report.
Article 10 CHANGES IN THE STATUS OF SPAMIs
Changes in the delimitation or legal status of a SPAMI or the
suppression of all or part of such an area shall not be decided upon
unless there are important reasons for doing so, taking into account
the need to safeguard the environment and comply with the obligations
laid down in this Protocol and a procedure similar to that followed for
the creation of the SPAMI and its inclusion in the List shall be
PART III PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF SPECIES
Article 11 NATIONAL MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF SPECIES
1. The Parties shall manage species of flora and fauna with the aim of maintaining them in a favourable state of conservation.
2. The Parties shall, in the zones subject to their sovereignty or
national jurisdiction, identify and compile lists of the endangered or
threatened species of flora and fauna and accord protected status to
such species. The Parties shall regulate and, where appropriate,
prohibit activities having adverse effects on such species or their
habitats, and carry out management, planning and other measures to
ensure a favourable state of conservation of such species.
3. With respect to protected species of fauna, the Parties shall control and, where appropriate, prohibit:
(a) the taking, possession or killing (including, to the extent
possible, the incidental taking, possession or killing), the commercial
trade, the transport and the exhibition for commercial purposes of
these species, their eggs, parts or products;
(b) to the extent possible, the disturbance of wild fauna, particularly
during the period of breeding, incubation, hibernation or migration, as
well as other periods of biological stress.
4. In addition to the measures specified in the previous paragraph, the
Parties shall coordinate their efforts, through bilateral or
multilateral action, including if necessary, agreements for the
protection and recovery of migratory species whose range extends into
the area to which this Protocol applies.
5. With respect to protected species of flora and their parts and
products, the Parties shall regulate, and where appropriate, prohibit
all forms of destruction and disturbance, including the picking,
collecting, cutting, uprooting, possession of, commercial trade in, or
transport and exhibition for commercial purposes of such species.
6. The Parties shall formulate and adopt measures and plans with regard
to ex situ reproduction, in particular captive breeding, of protected
fauna and propagation of protected flora.
7. The Parties shall endeavour, directly or through the Centre, to
consult with range States that are not Parties to this Protocol, with a
view to coordinating their efforts to manage and protect endangered or
8. The Parties shall make provision, where possible, for the return of
protected species exported or held illegally. Efforts should be made by
Parties to reintroduce such specimens to their natural habitat.
Article 12 COOPERATIVE MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION AND
CONSERVATION OF SPECIES
1. The Parties shall adopt cooperative measures to ensure the
protection and conservation of the flora and fauna listed in the
Annexes to this Protocol relating to the List of Endangered or
Threatened Species and the List of Species whose Exploitation is
2. The Parties shall ensure the maximum possible protection and
recovery of the species of fauna and flora listed in the Annex relating
to the List of Endangered or Threatened Species by adopting at the
national level the measures provided for in paragraphs 3 and 5 of
Article 11 of this Protocol.
3. The Parties shall prohibit the destruction of and damage to the
habitat of species listed in the Annex relating to the List of
Endangered or Threatened Species and shall formulate and implement
action plans for their conservation or recovery. They shall continue to
cooperate in implementing the relevant action plans already adopted.
4. The Parties, in cooperation with competent international
organizations, shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the
conservation of the species listed in the Annex relating to the List of
Species whose Exploitation is Regulated while at the same time
authorizing and regulating the exploitation of these species so as to
ensure and maintain their favourable state of conservation.
5. When the range area of a threatened or endangered species extends to
both sides of a national frontier or of the limit that separates the
territories or the areas subject to the sovereignty or the national
jurisdiction of two Parties to this Protocol, these Parties shall
cooperate with a view to ensuring the protection and conservation and,
if necessary, the recovery of such species.
6. Provided that no other satisfactory solutions are available and that
the exemption does not harm the survival of the population or of any
other species, the Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions
prescribed for the protection of the species listed in the Annexes to
this Protocol for scientific, educational or management purposes
necessary to ensure the survival of the species or to prevent
significant damage. Such exemptions shall be notified to the
Article 13 INTRODUCTION OF NON-INDIGENOUS OR GENETICALLY MODIFIED SPECIES
1. The Parties shall take all appropriate measures to regulate the
intentional or accidental introduction of non-indigenous or genetically
modified species to the wild and prohibit those that may have harmful
impacts on the ecosystems, habitats or species in the area to which
this Protocol applies.
2. The Parties shall endeavour to implement all possible measures to
eradicate species that have already been introduced when, after
scientific assessment, it appears that such species cause or are likely
to cause damage to ecosystems, habitats or species in the area to which
this Protocol applies.
PART IV PROVISIONS COMMON TO PROTECTED AREAS AND SPECIES
Article 14 AMENDMENTS TO ANNEXES
1. The procedures for amendments to Annexes to this Protocol shall be those set forth in Article 23 of the Convention.
2. All proposed amendments submitted to the meeting of Contracting
Parties shall have been the subject of prior evaluation by the meeting
of National Focal Points.
Article 15 INVENTORIES
Each Party shall compile comprehensive inventories of:
(a) areas over which they exercise sovereignty or jurisdiction that
contain rare or fragile ecosystems, that are reservoirs of biological
diversity, that are important for threatened or endangered species;
(b) species of fauna or flora that are endangered or threatened.
Article 16 GUIDELINES AND COMMON CRITERIA
The Parties shall adopt:
(a) common criteria for the choice of protected marine and coastal
areas that could be included in the SPAMI List which shall be annexed
to the Protocol;
(b) common criteria for the inclusion of additional species in the Annexes;
(c) guidelines for the establishment and management of specially protected areas.
The criteria and guidelines referred to in paragraphs (b) and (c) may
be amended by the meeting of the Parties on the basis of a proposal
made by one or more Parties.
Article 17 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
In the planning process leading to decisions on industrial and other
projects and activities that could significantly affect protected areas
and species and their habitats, the Parties shall evaluate and take
into consideration the possible direct or indirect, immediate or
long-term, impact, including the cumulative impact of the projects and
activities being contemplated.
Article 18 INTEGRATION OF TRADITIONAL ACTIVITIES
1. In formulating protective measures, the Parties shall take into
account the traditional subsistence and cultural activities of their
local populations. They shall grant exemptions, as necessary, to meet
such needs. No exemption which is allowed for this reason shall:
(a) endanger either the maintenance of ecosystems protected under this
Protocol or the biological processes contributing to the maintenance of
(b) cause either the extinction of, or a substantial reduction in, the
number of individuals making up the populations or species of flora and
fauna, in particular endangered, threatened, migratory or endemic
2. Parties which grant exemptions from the protection measures shall inform the Contracting Parties accordingly.
Article 19 PUBLICITY, INFORMATION, PUBLIC AWARENESS AND EDUCATION
1. The Parties shall give appropriate publicity to the establishment of
specially protected areas, their boundaries, applicable regulations,
and to the designation of protected species, their habitats and
2. The Parties shall endeavour to inform the public of the interest and
value of specially protected areas and species, and of the scientific
knowledge which may be gained from the point of view of nature
conservation and other points of view. Such information should have an
appropriate place in education programmes. The Parties shall also
endeavour to promote the participation of their public and their
conservation organizations in measures that are necessary for the
protection of the areas and species concerned, including environmental
Article 20 SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND MANAGEMENT RESEARCH
1. The Parties shall encourage and develop scientific and technical
research relating to the aims of this Protocol. They shall also
encourage and develop research into the sustainable use of specially
protected areas and the management of protected species.
2. The Parties shall consult, when necessary, among themselves and with
competent international organizations with a view to identifying,
planning and undertaking scientific and technical research and
monitoring programmes necessary for the identification and monitoring
of protected areas and species and assessing the effectiveness of
measures taken to implement management and recovery plans.
3. The Parties shall exchange, directly or through the Centre,
scientific and technical information concerning current and planned
research and monitoring programmes and the results thereof. They shall,
to the fullest extent possible, coordinate their research and
monitoring programmes, and endeavour jointly to define or standardize
4. In technical and scientific research, the Parties shall give
priority to SPAMIs and species appearing in the Annexes to this
Article 21 MUTUAL COOPERATION
1. The Parties shall, directly or with the assistance of the Centre or
international organizations concerned, establish cooperation programmes
to coordinate the establishment, conservation, planning and management
of specially protected areas, as well as the selection, management and
conservation of protected species. There shall be regular exchanges of
information concerning the characteristics of protected areas and
species, the experience acquired and the problems encountered.
2. The Parties shall, at the earliest opportunity, communicate any
situation that might endanger the ecosystems of specially protected
areas or the survival of protected species of flora and fauna to the
other Parties, to the States that might be affected and to the Centre.
Article 22 MUTUAL ASSISTANCE
1. The Parties shall cooperate, directly or with the assistance of the
Centre or the international organizations concerned, in formulating,
financing and implementing programmes of mutual assistance and
assistance to developing countries that express a need for it with a
view to implementing this Protocol.
2. These programmes shall include public environmental education, the
training of scientific, technical and management personnel, scientific
research, the acquisition, utilization, design and development of
appropriate equipment, and transfer of technology on advantageous terms
to be agreed among the Parties concerned.
3. The Parties shall, in matters of mutual assistance, give priority to
the SPAMIs and species appearing in the Annexes to this Protocol.
Article 23 REPORTS OF THE PARTIES
The Parties shall submit to ordinary meetings of the Parties a report on the implementation of this Protocol, in particular on:
(a) the status and the state of the areas included in the SPAMI List;
(b) any changes in the delimitation or legal status of the SPAMIs and protected species;
(c) possible exemptions allowed pursuant to Articles 12 and 18 of this Protocol.
PART V INSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
Article 24 NATIONAL FOCAL POINTS
Each Party shall designate a National Focal Point to serve as liaison
with the Centre on the technical and scientific aspects of the
implementation of this Protocol. The National Focal Points shall meet
periodically to carry out the functions deriving from this Protocol.
Article 25 COORDINATION
1. The Organization shall be responsible for coordinating the
implementation of this Protocol. For this purpose, it shall receive the
support of the Centre, to which it may entrust the following functions:
(a) assisting the Parties, in cooperation with the competent
international, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in:
- establishing and managing specially protected areas in the area to which this Protocol applies;
- conducting programmes of technical and scientific research as provided for in Article 20 of this Protocol;
- conducting the exchange of scientific and technical information among
the Parties as provided for in Article 20 of this Protocol;
- preparing management plans for specially protected areas and species;
- developing cooperative programmes pursuant to Article 21 of this Protocol;
- preparing educational materials designed for various groups;
(b) convening and organizing the meetings of the National Focal Points and providing them with secretariat services;
(c) formulating recommendations on guidelines and common criteria pursuant to Article 16 of this Protocol;
(d) creating and updating databases of specially protected areas, protected species and other matters relevant to this Protocol;
(e) preparing reports and technical studies that may be required for the implementation of this Protocol;
(f) elaborating and implementing the training programmes mentioned in Article 22, paragraph 2;
(g) cooperating with regional and international governmental and
non-governmental organizations concerned with the protection of areas
and species, provided that the specificity of each organization and the
need to avoid the duplication of activities are respected;
(h) carrying out the functions assigned to it in the action plans adopted in the framework of this Protocol;
(i) carrying out any other function assigned to it by the Parties.
Article 26 MEETINGS OF THE PARTIES
1. The ordinary meetings of the Parties to this Protocol shall be held
in conjunction with the ordinary meetings of the Contracting Parties to
the Convention held pursuant to Article 18 of the Convention. The
Parties may also hold extraordinary meetings in conformity with that
2. The meetings of the Parties to this Protocol are particularly aimed at:
(a) keeping under review the implementation of this Protocol;
(b) overseeing the work of the Organization and of the Centre relating
to the implementation of this Protocol and providing policy guidance
for their activities;
(c) considering the efficacy of the measures adopted for the management
and protection of areas and species, and examining the need for other
measures, in particular in the form of Annexes and amendments to this
Protocol or to its Annexes;
(d) adopting the guidelines and common criteria provided for in Article 16 of this Protocol;
(e) considering reports transmitted by the Parties under Article 23 of
this Protocol, as well as any other pertinent information which the
Parties transmit through the Centre;
(f) making recommendations to the Parties on the measures to be adopted for the implementation of this Protocol;
(g) examining the recommendations of the meetings of the National Focal Points pursuant to Article 24 of this Protocol;
(h) deciding on the inclusion of an area in the SPAMI List in conformity with Article 9, paragraph 4, of this Protocol;
(i) examining any other matter relevant to this Protocol, as appropriate;
(j) discussing and evaluating the exemptions allowed by the Parties in conformity with Articles 12 and 18 of this Protocol.
PART VI FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 27 EFFECT OF THE PROTOCOL ON DOMESTIC LEGISLATION
The provisions of this Protocol shall not affect the right of Parties
to adopt relevant stricter domestic measures for the implementation of
Article 28 RELATIONSHIP WITH THIRD PARTIES
1. The Parties shall invite States that are not Parties to the Protocol
and international organizations to cooperate in the implementation of
2. The Parties undertake to adopt appropriate measures, consistent with
international law, to ensure that no one engages in any activity
contrary to the principles or purposes of this Protocol.
Article 29 SIGNATURE
This Protocol shall be open for signature in Barcelona on 10 June 1995
and in Madrid from 11 June 1995 to 10 June 1996 by any Contracting
Party to the Convention.
Article 30 RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE OR APPROVAL
This Protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval.
Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited
with the Government of Spain, which will assume the functions of
Article 31 ACCESSION
As from 10 June 1996, this Protocol shall be open for accession by any
State and regional economic grouping which is Party to the Convention.
Article 32 ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following
the deposit of the sixth instrument of ratification, acceptance or
approval of, or accession to, the Protocol.
2. From the date of its entry into force, this Protocol shall replace
the Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas of
1982, in the relationship among the Parties to both instruments.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized, have signed this Protocol.
DONE at Barcelona, on 10 June 1995, in a single copy in the Arabic,
English, French and Spanish languages, the four texts being equally
authoritative, for signature by any Party to the Convention.
COMMON CRITERIA FOR THE CHOICE OF PROTECTED MARINE AND COASTAL AREAS THAT COULD BE INCLUDED IN THE SPAMI LIST
A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
The Contracting Parties agree that the following general principles will guide their work in establishing the SPAMI List:
a) The conservation of the natural heritage is the basic aim that must
characterize a SPAMI. The pursuit of other aims such as the
conservation of the cultural heritage, and the promotion of scientific
research, education, participation, collaboration, is highly desirable
in SPAMIs and constitutes a factor in favour of a site being included
on the List, to the extent in which it remains compatible with the aims
b) No limit is imposed on the total number of areas included in the
List or on the number of areas any individual Party can propose for
inscription. Nevertheless, the Parties agree that sites will be
selected on a scientific basis and included in the List according to
their qualities; they will have therefore to fulfil the requirements
set out by the Protocol and the present criteria.
c) The listed SPAMI and their geographical distribution will have to be
representative of the Mediterranean region and its biodiversity. To
this end the List will have to represent the highest number possible of
types of habitats and ecosystems.
d) The SPAMIs will have to constitute the core of a network aiming at
the effective conservation of the Mediterranean heritage. To attain
this objective, the Parties will develop their cooperation on bilateral
and multilateral bases in the field of conservation and management of
natural sites and notably through the establishment of transboundary
e) The sites included in the SPAMI List are intended to have a value of
example and model for the protection of the natural heritage of the
region. To this end, the Parties ensure that sites included in the List
are provided with adequate legal status, protection measures and
management methods and means.
B. GENERAL FEATURES OF THE AREAS THAT COULD BE INCLUDED IN THE SPAMI LIST
1. To be eligible for inclusion in the SPAMI List, an area must fulfil
at least one of the general criteria set in Article 8 paragraph 2 of
the Protocol. Several of these general criteria can in certain cases be
fulfilled by the same area, and such a circumstance cannot but
strengthen the case for the inclusion of the area in the List.
2. The regional value is a basic requirement of an area for being
included in the SPAMI List. The following criteria should be used in
evaluating the Mediterranean interest of an area:
The area contains unique or rare ecosystems, or rare or endemic species.
b) Natural representativeness
The area has highly representative ecological processes, or community
or habitat types or other natural characteristics. Representativeness
is the degree to which an area represents a habitat type, ecological
process, biological community, physiographic feature or other natural
The area has a high diversity of species, communities, habitats or ecosystems.
The area has a high degree of naturalness as a result of the lack or low level of human-induced disturbance and degradation.
e) Presence of habitats that are critical to endangered, threatened or endemic species.
f) Cultural representativeness
The area has a high representative value with respect to the cultural
heritage, due to the existence of environmentally sound traditional
activities integrated with nature which support the well-being of local
3. To be included in the SPAMI List, an area having scientific,
educational or aesthetic interest must, respectively, present a
particular value for research in the field of natural sciences or for
activities of environmental education or awareness or contain
outstanding natural features, landscapes or seascapes.
4. Besides the fundamental criteria specified in article 8, paragraph
2, of the Protocol, a certain number of other characteristics and
factors should be considered as favourable for the inclusion of the
site in the List. These include:
a) the existence of threats likely to impair the ecological, biological, aesthetic or cultural value of the area;
b) the involvement and active participation of the public in general,
and particularly of local communities, in the process of planning and
management of the area;
c) the existence of a body representing the public, professional,
non-governmental sectors and the scientific community involved in the
d) the existence in the area of opportunities for sustainable development;
e) the existence of an integrated coastal management plan within the meaning of Article 4 paragraph 3 (e) of the Convention.
C. LEGAL STATUS
1. All areas eligible for inclusion in the SPAMI List must be awarded a
legal status guaranteeing their effective long-term protection.
2. To be included in the SPAMI List, an area situated in a zone already
delimited over which a Party exercises sovereignty or jurisdiction must
have a protected status recognized by the Party concerned.
3. In the case of areas situated, partly or wholly, on the high sea or
in a zone where the limits of national sovereignty or jurisdiction have
not yet been defined, the legal status, the management plan, the
applicable measures and the other elements provided for in Article 9,
paragraph 3, of the Protocol will be provided by the neighbouring
Parties concerned in the proposal for inclusion in the SPAMI List.
D. PROTECTION, PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT MEASURES
1. Conservation and management objectives must be clearly defined in
the texts relating to each site, and will constitute the basis for
assessment of the adequacy of the adopted measures and the
effectiveness of their implementation at the revisions of the SPAMI
2. Protection, planning and management measures applicable to each area
must be adequate for the achievement of the conservation and management
objectives set for the site in the short and long term, and take in
particular into account the threats upon it.
3. Protection, planning and management measures must be based on an
adequate knowledge of the elements of the natural environment and of
socioeconomic and cultural factors that characterize each area. In
case of shortcomings in basic knowledge, an area proposed for inclusion
in the SPAMI List must have a programme for the collection of the
unavailable data and information.
4. The competence and responsibility with regard to administration and
implementation of conservation measures for areas proposed for
inclusion in the SPAMI List must be clearly defined in the texts
governing each area.
5. In the respect of the specificity characterizing each protected
site, the protection measures for a SPAMI must take account of the
following basic aspects:
a) the strengthening of the regulation of the release or dumping of
wastes and other substances likely directly or indirectly to impair the
integrity of the area;
b) the strengthening of the regulation of the introduction or reintroduction of any species into the area;
c) the regulation of any activity or act likely to harm or disturb the
species, or that might endanger the conservation status of the
ecosystems or species or might impair the natural, cultural or
aesthetic characteristics of the area.
d) the regulation applicable to the zones surrounding the area in question.
6. To be included in the SPAMI List, a protected area must have a
management body, endowed with sufficient powers as well as means and
human resources to prevent and/or control activities likely to be
contrary to the aims of the protected area.
7. To be included in the SPAMI List an area will have to be endowed
with a management plan. The main rules of this management plan are to
be laid down as from the time of inclusion and implemented immediately.
A detailed management plan must be presented within three years of the
time of inclusion. Failure to respect this obligation entails the
removal of the site from the List.
8. To be included in the SPAMI List, an area will have to be endowed
with a monitoring programme. This programme should include the
identification and monitoring of a certain number of significant
parameters for the area in question, in order to allow the assessment
of the state and evolution of the area, as well as the effectiveness of
protection and management measures implemented, so that they may be
adapted if need be. To this end further necessary studies are to be
LIST OF ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES
Cystoseira amentacea (including var. stricta and var. spicata)
Cystoseira spinosa (including C. adriatica)
Aplysina sp. plur.
Tethya sp. plur.
Ranella olearia (= Argobuccinum olearium = A. giganteum)
Charonia lampas (= Ch. rubicunda = Ch. nodifera)
Charonia tritonis (= Ch. seguenziae)
Luria lurida (= Cypraea lurida)
Pinna rudis (= P. pernula)
LIST OF SPECIES WHOSE EXPLOITATION IS REGULATED
Antipathes sp. plur.