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Russian National Security Concept
2000

 
 

Russian National Security Concept

 
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I. Russia in the world community 

The situation in the world is characterized by a dynamic transformation of the system of international relations. Following the end of the bipolar confrontation era, two mutually-exclusive trends took shape. 

The first of these trends shows itself in the strengthened economic and political positions of a significant number of states and their integrative associations and in improved mechanisms for multilateral management of international processes. Economic, political, science and technological, environmental and information factors are playing an ever-increasing role. Russia will facilitate the formation of an ideology of establishing a multipolar world on this basis. 

The second trend shows itself in attempts to create an international relations structure based on domination by developed Western countries in the international community, under US leadership and designed for unilateral solutions (including the use of military force) to key issues in world politics in circumvention of the fundamental rules of international law. 

The formation of international relations is accompanied by competition and also by the aspiration of a number of states to strengthen their influence on global politics, including by creating weapons of mass destruction. Military force and violence remain substantial aspects of international relations. 

Russia is one of the world's major countries, with centuries of history and rich cultural traditions. Despite the complex international situation and its own temporary difficulties, Russia continues to play an important role in global processes by virtue of its great economic, scientific, technological and military potential and its unique strategic location on the Eurasian continent. 

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At the same time, a number of states are stepping up efforts to weaken Russia politically, economically, militarily and in other ways. Attempts to ignore Russia's interests when solving major issues of international relations, including conflict situations, are capable of undermining international security, stability, and the positive changes achieved in international relations. 

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II. Russia's national interests 

Russia's national interests are the combined and balanced interests of the individual, society and the state in economic; domestic political, social, international, informational, military, border, ecological security. They are long-term in nature and define the main goals and strategic and short-term goals of the state's domestic and foreign policy. The national interests are secured by institutions of state authority, which may also act in coordination with public organizations operating on the basis of the constitution and legislation of the Russian Federation. 

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The interests of society lie in strengthening democracy; creating a rule-of-law and social state; in achieving and maintaining public harmony and in the spiritual renewal of Russia. 

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Russia's national interests may be assured only on the basis of sustainable economic development. Therefore Russia's national interests in economics are of key importance. 

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Russia's national interests in the international sphere lie in upholding its sovereignty and strengthening its position as a great power and as one of the influential centres of a multipolar world, in development of equal and equitable relations with all countries and integrative associations and in particular with the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Russia's traditional partners, in universal observance of human rights and freedoms and the impermissibility of dual standards in this respect. 

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Russia's national interests in the military sphere lie in protection of its independence, sovereignty and state and territorial integrity, in the prevention of military aggression against Russia and its allies and in ensuring the conditions for peaceful and democratic development of the state. 

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III. Threats to the Russian Federation's national security 

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The fundamental threats in the international sphere are brought about by the following factors: 

  • the desire of some states and international associations to diminish the role of existing mechanisms for ensuring international security, above all the United Nations and the OSCE;  the danger of a weakening of Russia's political, economic and military influence in the world;
  • the strengthening of military-political blocs and alliances, above all NATO's eastward expansion;
  • the possible emergence of foreign military bases and major military presences in the immediate proximity of Russian borders; 
  • proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their delivery vehicles;
  • the weakening of integrational processes in the Commonwealth of Independent States; 
  • outbreak and escalation of conflicts near the state border of the Russian Federation and the external borders of CIS member states;
  • territorial claims on Russia. 
Threats to the Russian Federation's national security in the international sphere can be seen in attempts by other states to oppose a strengthening of Russia as one of the influential centres of a multipolar world, to hinder the exercise of its national interests and to weaken its position in Europe, the Middle East, Transcaucasus, Central Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region.

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There is an increased threat to the national security of the Russian Federation in the information sphere. A serious danger arises from the desire of a number of countries to dominate the global information domain space and to expel Russia from the external and internal information market; from the development by a number of states of "information warfare" concepts that entail creation of ways of exerting a dangerous effect on other countries' information systems, of disrupting information and telecommunications systems and data storage systems, and of gaining unauthorized access to them. 

The level and scope of the military threat are growing. 

Elevated to the rank of strategic doctrine, NATO's transition to the practice of using military force outside its zone of responsibility and without UN Security Council sanction could destabilize the entire global strategic situation. The growing technical advantage of a number of leading powers and their enhanced ability to create new weapons and military equipment could provoke a new phase of the arms race and radically alter the forms and methods of warfare. 

Foreign special services and the organizations they use are increasing their activity in the Russian Federation. 

Adverse trends in the military sphere are being assisted by delays in reforming the military and the defence industry of the Russian Federation, by inadequate funding for defence and by a poor regulatory and legal framework. At the present time, this can be seen in the critically low level of operational and military training in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and of the other forces and military bodies and authorities, and in the impermissible drop in equipment of the forces with modern armaments and military and special hardware, and in the extreme acuteness of social problems; this leads to a weakening of the military security of the Russian Federation as a whole. 

Threats to the national security and interests of the Russian Federation in the border sphere are caused by the following: 
 

  • economic, demographic and cultural-religious expansion by neighbouring states into Russian territory;
  • increased activity by cross-border organized crime and also by foreign terrorist organizations. 


The threat of a deteriorating environmental situation in the country and depletion of natural resources depends directly on the state of the economy and society's willingness to appreciate the global nature and importance of these issues. For Russia this threat is especially great because of the domination position in industry of the fuel and energy sector, inadequate legislation for environmental protection, lack or limited use of energy-saving technologies, and low environmental awareness. There is a trend for Russia to be used as a place for reprocessing and burying environmentally dangerous materials and substances. 

Against this background the weakening of state supervision and inadequate legal and economic levers for averting and relieving emergencies are increasing the risk of man-made disasters in all sectors of the economy. 
 

IV. Ensuring the national security of the Russian Federation 

The following are the principal tasks for ensuring the Russian Federation's national security: 

  • to promptly detect and identify external and internal threats to national security;
  • to take short- and long-term action to avert and remove internal and external threats;
  • to ensure the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation and the security of its border lands;
  • to improve the economy and pursue an independent and socially-oriented economic policy;
  • to overcome the Russian Federation's scientific and technological dependence on external sources; 
  • to ensure citizens' personal security and constitutional rights and freedoms in Russia; 
  • to improve the system of state power in the Russian Federation, the system of federal relations and local self-government and legislation; 
  • to create harmonious relations between communities, and to strengthen law and order and preserve socio-political stability in society; 
  • to ensure unwavering compliance with Russian Federation legislation by all citizens and officials, state bodies, political parties and public and religious organizations; 
  • to ensure Russia's cooperation, especially with the world's leading countries, on equal and mutually advantageous terms; 
  • to increase the state's military potential and maintaining it at a sufficient level; 
  • to take effective action to identify, avert and intercept intelligence and subversive activities by foreign states against the Russian Federation; 
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The foreign policy of the Russian Federation should be designed to: 
 

  • pursue an active foreign-policy course; strengthen key mechanisms, above all of the UN Security Council, for multilateral management of world political and economic processes; 
  • ensure favourable conditions for the country's economic and social development and for global and regional stability; protect the lawful rights and interests of Russian citizens abroad, through the use of political, economic and other measures;
  • develop relations with CIS member states in accordance with principles of international law, and developing integrative processes within the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States that meet Russia's interests; 
  • ensure Russia's full-fledged involvement in global and regional economic and political structures; 
  • assist in settling conflicts, including peacekeeping activities under UN, OSCE and CIS aegis; 
  • achieve progress in nuclear arms control and maintain strategic stability in the world through states' compliance with their international obligations in this respect; 
  • fulfil mutual obligations to reduce and eliminate weapons of mass destruction and conventional arms, carrying out confidence- and stability-building measures, ensure international supervision of the export of goods and technologies and over the provision of military and dual-purpose services;
  • adapt existing arms-control and disarmament agreements in line with the new climate in international relations, and also develop when necessary new agreements especially for enhancing confidence- and security-building measures; 
  • assist in establishing zones free of weapons of mass destruction; 
  • develop international cooperation in the fight against transnational crime and terrorism. 


Ensuring the Russian Federation's military security is a crucial direction of state activity. The main goal in this respect is to ensure an adequate response to threats which may arise in the 21st century, with rational spending on defence. 

In preventing war and armed conflicts, the Russian Federation prefers political, diplomatic, economic and other non-military means. The national interests of the Russian Federation, however, require the presence of military power sufficient for its defence. The Russian Federation armed forces play the main role in ensuring the military security of the Russian Federation. 

A vital task of the Russian Federation is to exercise deterrence to prevent aggression on any scale and nuclear or otherwise, against Russia and its allies. 

The Russian Federation should possess nuclear forces that are capable of guaranteeing the infliction of the desired extent of damage against any aggressor state or coalition of states in any conditions and circumstances. 

In their peacetime order of battle the Russian Federation armed forces should be able to provide dependable protection against aerial attack; to perform jointly with other troops, military units and entities missions to repulse aggression in a local war (armed conflict); and to carry out strategic deployments for missions in a large-scale war. The Russian Federation armed forces should also ensure Russia's ability to carry out peacekeeping duties. 

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The interests of ensuring Russia's national security predetermine the need, under appropriate circumstances, for Russia to have a military presence in certain strategically important regions of the world. The stationing of limited military contingents (military bases, naval units) there on a treaty basis must ensure Russia's readiness to fulfil its obligations and to assist in forming a stable military-strategic balance of forces in regions, and must enable the Russian Federation to react to a crisis situation in its initial stage and achieve its foreign-policy goals. 

The Russian Federation considers the possibility of employing military force to ensure its national security based on the following principles: 

  • use of all available forces and assets, including nuclear, in the event of need to repulse armed aggression, if all other measures of resolving the crisis situation have been exhausted and have proven ineffective;
  • use of military force inside the country is allowed in strict conformity with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and with federal laws in the event of emergence of a threat to citizens' lives and also of violent change to the constitutional system. 
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