US-Russia Nuclear Security Cooperation:
Preventing nuclear smuggling and enhancing export controls

A number of programs within the framework of US-Russia nuclear security cooperation aim to prevent proliferation of nuclear materials and sensitive technologies at Russia's national borders, whether through theft and illicit trafficking or through exports of dual-use technologies.


Second Line of Defense (SLD)
administered through the US Department of Energy's MPC&A program

This program was initiated in 1998 and is the first US-Russia cooperative program to focus on illicit trafficking of nuclear material and nuclear-related equipment at the national borders of Russia. The SLD Program has together with the Russian State Customs Committee identified 22 strategic border crossings and ports of entry to be supplied with equipment related to radiation detection and search & identification. The program also aims to train customs officials and develop response procedures and capabilities to deter nuclear smuggling. After the Bush Administration's review of US nonproliferation programs, the SLD was merged with the 'first line of defense', the MPC&A program, also administered by the Department of Energy.



Export Control and Border Security Assistance (EXBS)
administered through the US State Department

Until 1995, some $39 million for export control assistance to the NIS were funded under the Defense Department's CTR program. In 1996, funding responsibility export control assistance was moved to the Department of State. The EXBS program aims to support NIS in improving internal physical and legal controls designed to prevent illegal transfers of materials and technologies used for weapons of mass destruction. This includes helping Russia to establish norms, licensing & tracking procedures and a legal infrastructure for nuclear export control. Assistance has consisted of exchanges for government and industry representatives to acquaint them with the need for effective export controls. Similarly to the DOE's Second Line of Defense, this program also assists in installing effective radiation detection equipment at key border posts in Russia.

US Government documents and reports

CIA's unclassified bi-annual Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions: