Nuclear Security Cooperation:
The bulk of US-Russia nuclear security cooperation
focuses on enhancing physical protection and security of Russian
nuclear weapons and nuclear material. Early efforts focused
on providing equipment, such as cranes, trucks and cutting tools
for dismantling and destruction of surplus stockpiles. With
the maturing of the programs, a multitude of services have been
provided by the US, such as assistance with dismantling nuclear
submarines, enhancing security systems at nuclear weapons storage
sites and help with consolidating and accounting for nuclear
materials in central locations.
Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs (CTR)
Cooperative Threat Reduction is the umbrella name for the FSU nonproliferation programs administered by the US department of Defense. The CTR program was formally initiated in the US with the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991. It become known as the 'Nunn-Lugar' Act after the two senators who sponsored the bill, Sam Nunn (Democrat) and Richard Lugar (Republican). The bill was an amendment to the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty Implementation Act and came about after a request from the then Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev for help in dismantling Soviet nuclear weapons. The US reasoned it was in its national interest to seek the prevention of weapons proliferation in the territory of the former Soviet Union. The main aim of the initiative was to provide financial and technical assistance to Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine for ensuring custodial safety, dismantling and destruction of Soviet nuclear weapons.
US nonproliferation efforts with Russia received increased attention during the Clinton Administration and in 1993 the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act was renamed to the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act and expanded the objectives to cover:
By 1999, the CTR program had evolved to include a wide range of nonproliferation and demilitarization projects and the US government had by this time obligated $1.7 billion to CTR with Russia. In January 1999, the Clinton administration unveiled its Expanded Threat Reduction Initiative proposing increased funding and extended lifetime for many US-Russia nonproliferation programs. As a result, the US and Russia signed a protocol in June 1999 extending the CTR agreement with another 7 years until 2006.
B. Description of current CTR programs related to safety and security of nuclear weapons and material
C. Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission Documents
In 1993, the US and Russia established the Joint Commission on Economic and Technological Cooperation (also known as the Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission) with the mandate to support cooperation on space- and energy related issues. The first sub-committee formed was the Energy Policy Committee with emphasis on encouraging cooperation on nuclear energy production issues. An additional goal of the Energy Policy Committee was to reduce the 'Risks of Nuclear Power' and of 'Dismantlement of Nuclear Weapons', which gave impetus to, inter alia, the following documents:
D. US government reports
CIA's National Intelligence Council's Annual Report to Congress on the Safety and Security of Russian Nuclear Facilities and Military Forces, 22 February 2002.
E. Other resources
Material Protection Control & Accounting
The Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program was launched in 1993 as a Government-to-Government initiative within the Department of Defense's CTR framework. Although funded by the DOD, it was to be implemented by the DOE with the goal of assisting states of the former Soviet Union to prevent theft and diversion of the more than 650 tons of weapons-usable material at nuclear research institutes and production facilities. In 1994, the DOE initiated its own 'Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program', in parallel to the DOD funded project, which increasingly met with hurdles particularly regarding the issue of secrecy in the weapons complex. Russia was also objecting to the "buy American" clause in the CTR Act (see: Funding).
In 1996, DOE took over full funding responsibility for MPC&A efforts. As US-Russia nuclear security cooperation evolved, MPC&A efforts received higher priority and in October 1999 the two countries signed the MPC&A Cooperation Agreement (Annex), which extended MPC&A cooperation and established a Joint Coordination Committee. According to a 2001 GAO report, the MPC&A program had identified 252 buildings at 40 sites in Russia that require upgrades and had finished installing security systems in 81 buildings and thus protecting 86 ton of fissile material, or about 14% of the around 600 ton identified as being at risk of theft or diversion from Russia. According to original time schedules, the MPC&A projects were to be completed by 2002, but in 1998 DOE re-estimated completion time to 2020, at a cost of $2.2 billion. The MPC&A program was one of four nuclear security cooperation programs that the Bush Administration in December 2001 identified for expansion. In addition, DOE's Second Line of Defense program was merged with the MPC&A program.
B. Description of the MPC&A program at the Department of Energy
C. Gore-Chernomydin Commission documents
D. US government reports
E. Other Resources