Issued in Shanghai
February 28, 1972
Joint Communique of the People's
Republic of China and the United States of America
President Richard Nixon of the United States
of America visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of
Premier Chou En-lai of the People's Republic of China from February 21
to February 28, 1972. Accompanying the President were Mrs. Nixon, U.S.
Secretary of State William Rogers, Assistant to the President Dr. Henry
Kissinger, and other American officials.
President Nixon met with Chairman Mao Tsetung of the Communist Party of
China on February 21. The two leaders had a serious and frank exchange
of views on Sino-U.S. relations and world affairs.
During the visit, extensive, earnest and frank discussions were held between
President Nixon and Premier Chou En-lai on the normalization of relations
between the United States of America and the People's Republic of
China, as well as on other matters of interest to both sides. In addition,
Secretary of State William Rogers and Foreign Minister Chi Peng-fei held
talks in the same spirit.
President Nixon and his party visited Peking and viewed cultural, industrial
and agricultural sites, and they also toured Hangchow and Shanghai where,
continuing discussions with Chinese leaders, they viewed similar places
The leaders of the People's Republic of China and the United States
of America found it beneficial to have this opportunity, after so many
years without contact, to present candidly to one another their views
on a variety of issues. They reviewed the international situation in which
important changes and great upheavals are taking place and expounded their
respective positions and attitudes.
The Chinese side stated: Wherever there is oppression there is resistance.
Countries want independence, nations want liberation and the people want
revolution-this has become the irresistible trend of history. All nations,
big or small, should be equal; big nations should not bully the small
and strong nations should not bully the weak. China will never be a superpower
and it opposes hegemony and power politics of any kind. The Chinese side
stated that it firmly supports the struggles of all the oppressed people
and nations for freedom and liberation and that the people of all countries
have the right to choose their social systems according to their own wishes
and the right to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial
integrity of their own countries and oppose foreign aggression, interference,
control and subversion. All foreign troops should be withdrawn to their
own countries. The Chinese side expressed its firm support to the peoples
of Viet Nam, Laos and Cambodia in their efforts for the attainment of
their goal and its firm support to the seven-point proposal of the Provisional
Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Viet Nam and the elaboration
of February this year on the two key problems in the proposal, and to
the Joint Declaration of the Summit Conference of the Indochinese Peoples.
It firmly supports the eight-point program for the peaceful unification
of Korea put forward by the Government of the Democratic People's
Republic of Korea on April 12, 1971, and the stand for the abolition of
the "U.N. Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea".
It firmly opposes the revival and outward expansion of Japanese militarism
and firmly supports the Japanese people's desire to build an independent,
democratic, peaceful and neutral Japan. It firmly maintains that India
and Pakistan should, in accordance with the United Nations resolutions
on the India-Pakistan question, immediately withdraw all their forces
to their respective territories and to their own sides of the ceasefire
line in Jammu and Kashmir and firmly supports the Pakistan Government
and people in their struggle to preserve their independence and sovereignty
and the people of Jammu and Kashmir in their struggle for the right of
The U.S. side stated: Peace in Asia and peace in the world requires efforts
both to reduce immediate tensions and to eliminate the basic causes of
conflict. The United States will work for a just and secure peace; just,
because it fulfills the aspirations of peoples and nations for freedom
and progress; secure, because it removes the danger of foreign aggression.
The United States supports individual freedom and social progress for
all the peoples of the world, free of outside pressure or intervention.
The United States believes that the effort to reduce tensions is served
by improving communication between countries that have different ideologies
so as to lessen the risks of confrontation through accident, miscalculation
or misunderstanding. Countries should treat each other with mutual respect
and be willing to compete peacefully, letting performance be the ultimate
judge. No country should claim infallibility and each country should be
prepared to reexamine its own attitudes for the common good. The United
States stressed that the peoples of Indochina should be allowed to determine
their destiny without outside intervention; its constant primary objective
has been a negotiated solution; the eight-point proposal put forward by
the Republic of Viet Nam and the United States on January 27, 1972 represents
a basis for the attainment of that objective; in the absence of a negotiated
settlement, the United States envisages the ultimate withdrawal of all
U.S. forces from the region consistent with the aim of self-determination
for each country of Indochina. The United States will maintain its close
ties with and support for the Republic of Korea; the United States will
support efforts of the Republic of Korea to seek a relaxation of tension
and increased communication in the Korean peninsula. The United States
places the highest value on its friendly relations with Japan; it will
continue to develop the existing close bonds. Consistent with the United
Nations Security Council Resolution of December 21, 1971, the United States
favors the continuation of the ceasefire between India and Pakistan and
the withdrawal of all military forces to within their own territories
and to their own sides of the ceasefire line in Jammu and Kashmir; the
United States supports the right of the peoples of South Asia to shape
their own future in peace, free of military threat, and without having
the area become the subject of great power rivalry.
There are essential differences between China and the United States in
their social systems and foreign policies. However, the two sides agreed
that countries, regardless of their social systems, should conduct their
relations on the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial
integrity of all states, non-aggression against other states, non-interference
in the internal affairs of other states, equality and mutual benefit,
and peaceful coexistence. International disputes should be settled on
this basis, without resorting to the use or threat of force. The United
States and the People's Republic of China are prepared to apply
these principles to their mutual relations.
With these principles of international relations in mind the two sides
--progress toward the normalization of relations between China and the
United States is in the interests of all countries;
--both wish to reduce the danger of international military conflict;
--neither should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region and each is
opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish
such hegemony; and
--neither is prepared to negotiate on behalf of any third party or to
enter into agreements or understandings with the other directed at other
Both sides are of the view that it would be against the interests of the
peoples of the world for any major country to collude with another against
other countries, or for major countries to divide up the world into spheres
The two sides reviewed the long-standing serious disputes between China
and the United States. The Chinese side reaffirmed its position:
The Taiwan question is the crucial question obstructing the normalization
of relations between China and the United States; the Government of the
People's Republic of China is the sole legal government of China;
Taiwan is a province of China which has long been returned to the motherland;
the liberation of Taiwan is China's internal affair in which no
other country has the right to interfere; and all U.S. forces and military
installations must be withdrawn from Taiwan. The Chinese Government firmly
opposes any activities which aim at the creation of “one China,
one Taiwan” “one China two governments”, “two
Chinas”, an “independent Taiwan” or advocate that “the
status of Taiwan remains to be determined”.
The U.S. side declared: The United States acknowledges that all Chinese
on either side of the Taiwan Strait maintain there is but one China and
that Taiwan is a part of China. The United States Government does not
challenge that position. It reaffirms its interest in a peaceful settlement
of the Taiwan question by the Chinese themselves. With this prospect in
mind, it affirms the ultimate objective of the withdrawal of all U.S.
forces and military installations from Taiwan. In the meantime,
it will progressively reduce its forces and military installations on
Taiwan as the tension in the area diminishes.
The two sides agreed that it is desirable to broaden the understanding
between the two peoples. To this end, they discussed specific areas
in such fields as science, technology, culture, sports and journalism,
in which people-to-people contacts and exchanges would be mutually beneficial.
Each side undertakes to facilitate the further development of such contacts
Both sides view bilateral trade as another area from which mutual benefit
can be derived, and agreed that economic relations based on equality and
mutual benefit are in the interest of the peoples of the two countries.
They agree to facilitate the progressive development of trade between
their two countries.
The two sides agreed that they will stay in contact through various channels,
including the sending of a senior U.S. representative to Peking from time
to time for concrete consultations to further the normalization of relations
between the two countries and continue to exchange views on issues of
The two sides expressed the hope that the gains achieved during this visit
would open up new prospects for the relations between the two countries.
They believe that the normalization of relations between the two countries
is not only in the interest of the Chinese and American peoples but also
contributes to the relaxation of tension in Asia and the world.
President Nixon, Mrs. Nixon and the American party expressed their appreciation
for the gracious hospitality shown them by the Government and people of
the People's Republic of China.