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Press Release: Brussels (29-02-2000) - Nr: 6215/1/00

Subject : Common European Security and Defence Policy

MILITARY BODIES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF EU-LED MILITARY OPERATIONS


 




 

  1. The Cologne Presidency Report on strengthening the common European policy on security and defence, while reaffirming that NATO remains the foundation of the collective defence of its members, said that the focus of EU efforts would be to ensure that the Union has at its disposal "the necessary capabilities (including military capabilities) and appropriate structures for effective decision making in crisis management within the scope of the Petersberg tasks". 

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  3. The Helsinki European Council agreed that the objective is for the Union to have an autonomous capacity to take decisions and, where NATO as a whole is not engaged, to launch and then conduct EU-led military operations in response to international crises. In order to assume their responsibilities across the full range of Petersberg tasks, Member States therefore decided to develop more effective military capabilities and to establish new political and military structures for these tasks. Cologne had identified and Helsinki agreed to establish 4 pol/mil components within the Council to enable the Union to take decisions on EU-led Petersberg operations and to ensure, under the authority of the Council, the necessary political control and strategic direction of such operation: 
  • regular (or ad hoc) meetings of the General Affairs Council, with the participation as appropriate of Defence Ministers; 
  • a standing Political and Security Committee (PSC) in Brussels composed of national representatives of senior/ambassadorial level dealing with all aspects of CFSP, including the CESDP. 
  • an EU Military Committee composed of the Chiefs of Defence, represented by their military delegates,  

  • which will give military advice and make recommendations to the PSC, as well as provide military direction to the Military Staff;
  • an EU Military Staff within the Council structures which will provide military expertise and support to the CESDP, including the conduct of EU-led military crisis management operations. 
  1. It is envisaged that defence ministers will be able to play their part and in particular provide guidance on specific defence matters without the need for new institutional arrangements. For example, defence ministers could meet when particular defence topics were to be discussed (eg links with NATO force planning or further development of European military capabilities). 

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  3. This paper addresses the permanent military bodies and the arrangements and procedures which the EU will require for the planning and conduct of EU-led operations in such circumstances, taking into account the principles and arrangements agreed at Washington, Cologne and Helsinki to ensure that these complement the European pillar of the Alliance. It does not discuss the interim arrangements, non-military crisis management issues, nor the wider pol-mil machinery and decision-making procedures that will need to be developed but assumes that these will also  

  4. reflect, where appropriate, those principles. In particular, the paper does not seek to define the circumstances which might lead to a decision to mount an EU-led operation in the absence of a NATO operation or those in which an EU-led operation would not involve the use of NATO assets and capabilities under the envisaged 'Berlin plus' arrangements. Such decisions would be reached on a case by case basis through full consultation and transparency between the EU and NATO. Nor does the paper address the arrangements which will need to be made for accommodating the non-EU European Allies with regard to the mechanisms discussed - these will need further consideration.
EU MILITARY BODIES

The European Military Committee

  1. Roles. The European Military Committee (EMC) would be the highest EU military body. It would provide for consultation and co-operation between the Member States and give military advice and make recommendations to the appropriate EU political authorities and provide military direction to a European Military Staff (EMS) - described further below- on their behalf. Directives to and advice from the EMS would routinely be promulgated through the Chairman of the EMC, thus allowing the Committee the opportunity to make recommendations and highlight issues as appropriate. 

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  3. Composition. - The EMC would be a permanent body composed of the fifteen EU Chiefs of Defence Staff (consideration will need to be given to its relationship with the non EU European Allies). Day-to-day business would be conducted by national military delegates, who for those European nations who are also NATO members, would ideally be dual hatted with the nation's NATO representative (although this would be a matter for national decision). The EMC would convene at the level of national representatives on a routine basis and at the level of Chiefs of Defence Staff as appropriate, but twice a year as a minimum.  

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  5. The Chairman of the EMC would be a 4-star officer, such as a former Chief of Defence, selected (from outside the EMC) by the Chiefs of Defence of the EU Member States. He would act exclusively in an international capacity and his authority would stem from the Military Committee, to which he would be responsible for the performance of his duties. He would participate as appropriate in the Political and Security Committee and in the NATO Military Committee with rights to contribute to discussions [(although he will be a member of neither)], and he would have a close working relationship with the High Representative for CFSP. He will attend meetings of the Council when decisions with defence implications are to be taken. He would direct the day-to-day business of the EMC and act on behalf of the EMC in issuing directives and guidance to the Director of the EMS. 

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  7. Reflecting his responsibilities for NATO's European Pillar and his potential role in EU-led operations, DSACEUR would normally participate as appropriate in the EMC, although not a member. To provide transparency between the EU and the Alliance, the Chairmen of the EU and the NATO Military Committees should also be able to attend the other committee. In the case of operations, the EU operation commander would also attend or be represented at the EMC. 

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  9. Questions of participation, composition, cross representation with NATO or with other EU bodies have not yet been fully covered and will be dealt with at a later stage, thus indications given here on those matters are only illustrative at this stage. 
The European Military Staff
  1. The European Military Staff (EMS) would provide military expertise and capacity to support the EU's CFSP, including in the conduct of all EU-led military operations. The EMS would work under the political direction of the EU political authorities and the military direction of the EMC. The EMS will not itself act as an operational HQ but should: 
  • perform three main Operational functions: early warning, situation assessment and strategic planning, as described in paragraphs 10 and 11; 
  • provide a dedicated source of military expertise to the EU in peace time, crisis management situations, and during EU-led operations; 
  • act as an interface between the EU's political and military authorities and the military resources available to the EU; 
  • be capable, in particular, of providing effective military support to the EMC during the strategic planning phase of crisis management situations over the full range of Petersberg tasks, whether or not the EU draws on NATO assets and capabilities; 
  • have working procedures and operational concepts based on, and in any case compatible with, those in NATO. 
  1. Roles. In peace time it would: 
  • provide military expertise on EU defence policy issues; 
  • monitor potential crises, for which it will need, in addition to its own capacities in the Satellite Centre, ready access to appropriate national and multinational intelligence; 
  • carry out generic strategic planning for Petersberg missions; 
  • identify European national and multinational forces for EU-led operations; 
  • co-ordinate and stimulate the development of European military capabilities, developing an appropriate relationship with NATO's force planning process; 
  • contribute to the development (including training and exercises) of European national and multinational forces in co-ordination with NATO as appropriate; 
  • organise and co-ordinate operating procedures with national, multinational and NATO HQs available to the EU; 
  • programme, plan, conduct and evaluate the exercising of the military aspects of the EU's crisis management machinery, including the relationship with any selected Military Strategic Operation HQ (which will include exercising EU-NATO procedures); 
  • liaise with national HQs, European multinational force HQs and NATO. 
  1. In crisis management situations, the main task of the EMS would be to provide a set of prioritised military strategic options to the PSC through the EMC. To do this it would need to:  
  • request and handle intelligence and other relevant information from all available sources (including the Satellite Centre, European nations and NATO) and provide a military situation assessment to the PSC; 
  • develop and prioritise military strategic options based on this assessment by: 

  • defining initial broad options,
    drawing as appropriate on planning support from external sources (using the assured access to NATO when in place, national planning capabilities and multinational HQs available to the EU) who will analyse and elaborate these options in more detail;
    evaluating the results of this more detailed work and commissioning any further work that might be necessary;
    presenting an overall assessment, with an indication of priorities and recommendations as appropriate, to the Chairman of the EMC;
  • identify, in co-ordination with national planning staffs and, as appropriate, NATO, European forces that might participate in possible EU-led operations; 
  • continue to monitor crisis situations. 
  1. During EU-led operations, the EMS would: 
  • support the PSC/EMC in the drafting of Initial Planning Directives, Planning Directives and Mission Directives; 
  • continuously monitor the operation and conduct strategic analysis to support both the PSC in its role of strategic direction and the EMC in its role of providing military guidance, in coordination with the designated European Operation Commander. 
  • provide new options in co-ordination with the Operation Commander as required, in the light of political and operational developments. 
  1. Organisation. The EMS would: 
  • work under the authority of the Director EMS, whose rank needs further consideration but who would be subordinate to the Chairman of the EMC; 
  • be organised to cope with the full range of Petersberg tasks, whether or not the EU has recourse to NATO assets and capabilities;  
  • consist of a permanent core, organised to perform five main staff functions: intelligence assessment; situation monitoring; strategic planning; force preparedness, (including training and logistics); and administration. It would have sufficient capacity and facilities for rapid augmentation in times of crisis to provide in particular 24 hour manning. This is currently estimated to require around 60-90 officers although this can only be determined as a result of a much more detailed study of composition, staffing, and structure. 
  • be located as close as possible to the EU CFSP Machinery/EMC (preferably co-located); 
  • require a command and information system which has full connectivity with capitals, national and multinational HQs, as well as NATO; 
  • during crisis management situations, set up a dedicated Crisis Action Team (CAT) to undertake military situation. assessment, strategic planning and operations monitoring. The CAT will draw upon the EMS for manpower and expertise and, if necessary, on external temporary military augmentation. 


THE PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF EU-LED OPERATIONS

  1. The Cologne Presidency Report on strengthening of the common European policy on security and defence noted that according to the requirements of the case, the EU would need to conduct operations with or without recourse to NATO assets and capabilities. This section of the paper considers the procedures for the planning and conduct of both types of EU-led operations recognising that close coordination will be required with NATO, particularly in the early stages of a crisis, before it is clear whether or not NATO or the EU will be engaged militarily, and contingency strategic planning may be required by both the EU and NATO.

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  3. Strategic Planning. In the early stages of a potential or emerging crisis, the focus of the EU's activities is likely to be on diplomatic, humanitarian and economic crisis prevention measures. As a crisis emerges, the EMS would provide an initial military situation assessment to the PSC through the Chairman of the EMC, drawing on all available information sources, including NATO, national and multinational sources, to inform this assessment. The PSC, together with the Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit and other relevant elements of the European Council Secretariat, advised by the  

  4. EMS assessment, would develop a pol/mil framework for addressing the crisis. Once this framework has been agreed by nations, the PSC, through the Chairman of the EMC, would task the EMS to develop and prioritise military strategic options. These could include options for operations with or without use of NATO assets and capabilities.
Operational Planning and Command Requirements
  1. The EMC and EMS would be permanent military components of the CFSP decision making structure for all types of EU-led operations. Other planning capabilities, command structures, and other military assets would be drawn from NATO or from national or multinational sources. Below the EMS level, the chain of command for EU-led operations will need to encompass three levels. The Operation Commander would need a Military Strategic Operation HQ to plan the mounting and conduct of a joint operation. In addition, a wide-ranging joint operation would require an HQ which would carry out planning at theatre level, deploy as a theatre HQ and conduct the operation in the field. Finally, supporting and component HQs would be required according to circumstances. In some cases, for less complex operations, it may be possible to simplify these arrangements.  

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  3. For EU led operations that make use of NATO assets and capabilities: 

  4. the EU will be able to draw on the arrangements agreed at the NATO Washington Summit. These arrangements will, when fully implemented, provide the EU with extensive, capable and proven multinational military resources to plan and conduct operations in support of its Common Foreign and Security Policy, in particular: assured access to NATO planning capabilities; presumption of access to pre-identified NATO capabilities and common assets. a range of European command options; and a defence planning process adapted to incorporate more comprehensively European needs.

    Where it is decided that Operation Plans for an EU-led military operation should be developed, the PSC, taking advice from the EMC, would select a military strategic option (or options) to be pursued further.
    At this stage, the PSC/Council would also appoint an Operation Commander and Military Strategic Operation HQ, and consider designating a Force Commander and theatre HQ:

    DSACEUR and SHAPE have already been identified as the primary, although not the only candidates, for Operation Commander and Military Strategic Operation HQ. NATO also has a range of deployable and proven theatre and component HQs, with well-established procedures for multinational operations and capable of augmentation (including the specially designed Combined Joint Task Force);

    For all types of operation, the options for supporting and component HQs would include all the range of existing European Multinational and national forces and commands.
     

  5. For EU-led operations without recourse to NATO assets and capabilities: 

  6. planning and command requirements would draw on existing national and multinational HQs available to the EU. The military Strategic operation HQ would be based on the multi-nationalisation of existing national HQs by participating nations, and a theatre HQ created from a national capability similarly reinforced by contributing nations. When fully implemented, systematic arrangements in peacetime for multinationalising existing national HQs to act as a multinationalised joint national HQ and the development of multinational HQs would provide access to a range of European operational planning capabilities and command options. In the long run, some less ad hoe collective capability for operational planning and command at the strategic level could have to be developed within the EU.

    Where it is decided that Operation Plans for an EU-led military operation should be developed, the PSC, taking advice from the EMC, would select a military strategic option (or options) to be pursued further.
    At this stage, the PSC/Council would also appoint an Operation Commander and Military Strategic Operation HQ, and consider designating a Force Commander and theatre HQ:
    a Military Strategic Operation HQ would need to be based on the multinationalisation of an existing national HQ by participating nations, and a theatre HQ would need to be created from a national capability similarly reinforced

    For all types of operation, the options for supporting and component HQs would include all the range of existing European Multinational and national forces and commands. 
     

  7. The selected Operation Commander would be tasked to develop a Concept of Operations and Operation Plan for the selected military strategic option. The EMS would continue to provide, through the Chairman of the EMC, strategic planning guidance to the Operation Commander and military advice to the PSC. During this planning phase, close cooperation and transparency would continue to be necessary between the appropriate EU and NATO authorities, to ensure a shared understanding of the possible requirements for NATO assets and capabilities to support the operation. 

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  9. The operation planning documents (Concept of Operations, Operation Plan) and associated technical documents (Communication and Information Systems, Status of Forces Agreement, Rules of Engagement etc) prepared by the Operation Commander would be submitted for political approval with the EMS and EMC making recommendations and highlighting issues as appropriate. Once these planning documents were approved, NATO assets and capabilities would, if required, be requested from and released by NATO to the EU, according to procedures to be agreed that will build upon the work already undertaken by NATO and the WEU. 

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  11. Conduct of Operations. Once an EU-led operation was launched, the Chairman of the EMC, along with the Operation Commander would report to the EU political authorities on its conduct. The EU would also keep NATO informed of the progress of the operation, particularly where NATO assets and capabilities are involved. The EMS would continue to monitor the situation and support both the EU political authorities and the EMC. Proposals or requests for changes in the mission, Operation Plans or assets and capabilities required would be handled through the procedures described in paragraphs 19-21 above. 

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ANNEX

TERMINOLOGY

Crisis Action Team 
A team of staff officers established during a crisis from the EMS permanent structure, and if necessary external augmentation, to undertake military situation assessment, strategic planning, and monitoring of an ongoing crisis or operation.

EU-led operation 
A military operation conducted by European forces under the political control and strategic direction of the European Union. It may be an operation with or without recourse to NATO collective assets and capabilities.

European Forces 
National and multinational forces that are available to the EU for the conduct of EU-led operations. Many of these will also be declared to NATO.

Military Situation 
An assessment of possible military activities in Assessment response to an emerging or potential crisis situation, conducted by the EMS on the basis of intelligence requested from NATO, nations, and other sources. The military situation assessment is part of the strategic planning process and is an input to the development of the pol/mil framework.

Military Strategic Option 
A possible military action designed to achieve the pol/mil objectives outlined in the pol/mil framework. A military strategic option will describe the outline military solution, the required resources, constraints and chain of command. The European Military Staff will frame initial broad options, which will be analysed and elaborated by external sources, as part of the strategic planning process.

Military Strategic Operation HQ 
An HQ responsible for the planning and conduct of operations at the Military Strategic level of command. The Military Strategic Operation HQ will interact with the EU political authorities. The Operation Commander will be located at the Military Strategic Operation HQ. 

Operation Planning 
Military planning activities undertaken by the Operation Commander to develop a Concept of Operations and/or can Operation Plan in accordance with selected military strategic options and/or planning directives from the EMCIEMS. While operation planning is the responsibility of the Operation Commander, planning activities will take place, under his direction, at each of the three levels of military operations: the military strategic level, the theatre level and the tactical/component level.

Pol/MiI Framework 
A conceptual framework describing the EUs overall approach to the management of a particular crisis, addressing the full range of CFSP activity (diplomatic, economic, humanitarian, military) and including the definition of politico-military objectives for any possible military activities. The definition of the pol/mil framework is part of the strategic planning process.

Strategic Planning 
Planning activities that start as soon as a crisis emerges and end when the EU political authorities approve a military strategic option or a set of military strategic options. The strategic planning process encompasses military situation assessment, definition of a pollmil framework and development of military strategic options

Theatre HQ 
This HQ will be subordinate to the Military Strategic Operation HQ and will be responsible for the planning and conduct of operations at the theatre level of command. The Force Commander will be located at the theatre HQ. This HQ will be deployed in theatre or afloat.