Report to the Helsinki European Council on
STRENGTHENING OF THE COMMON EUROPEAN POLICY ON SECURITY AND
DEFENCE: FIRST MEASURES ON THE MILITARY INSTRUMENTS OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT AND GUIDANCE FOR
- Recalling the guiding principles agreed at Cologne,
the European Union should be able to assume its responsibilities for the full range of
conflict prevention and crisis management tasks defined in the EU Treaty, the Petersberg
- The European Union should have the autonomous
capacity to decide to launch, and then to conduct EU-led military operations in response
to international crises, in support of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP),
without prejudice to actions by NATO. The action by the Union will be conducted in
accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and the principles and
objectives of the OSCE Charter for European Security.
- For this purpose, the following new measures have
- - First, a common, European headline goal will be
adopted for readily deployable military capabilities, to be achieved through co-ordinated
national and multinational efforts, for carrying out the full range of Petersberg tasks.
- - Second, new political and military bodies will be
established within the Council to enable the Union to take decisions on EU-led Petersberg
operations and to ensure the necessary political control and strategic direction of such
- - Third, principles for cooperation with non-EU
European NATO members and other European partners in EU-led military crisis
management will be agreed without prejudice to the Union's decision-making autonomy.
- - Fourth, further steps will be taken to ensure
mutual consultation, cooperation and transparency between the EU and NATO on the
development of the Union's capability for military crisis management and on the
appropriate military response to a crisis.
- Efforts to carry out Petersberg tasks will improve
Member States' national and multinational military capabilities, which will at the same
time, as appropriate, strengthen the capabilities of NATO and enhance the effectiveness of
the Partnership for Peace (PfP) in promoting European security.
Military capabilities for Petersberg tasks
- The Member States committed themselves at Cologne to
develop more effective European military capabilities from the basis of the existing
national, bi-national and multinational capabilities, requiring in particular the
reinforcement of capabilities in the field of intelligence, strategic transport command
- The Member States have decided without unnecessary
duplication to enhance and strengthen their military capabilities for Petersberg tasks to
allow the Union to undertake operations in support of the CFSP. Particular attention will
be devoted to deployability, sustainability, interoperability, flexibility and mobility,
taking account of the results of the WEU audit of assets and capabilities for European-led
crisis management missions. The enhancement of the Union's crisis management capabilities
will contribute to benefit from, and therefore be complementary with the work carried out
under the NATO Defence Capabilities Initiative (DCI) and, as appropriate, within the
Planning and Review Process (PARP) of the PfP.
- An EU-led military crisis management operation will
be carried out by national and multinational European forces pre-identified by the Member
States, who may commit the same forces for NATO-led operations and other missions as well.
For the conduct of EU-led operations, the Union may use NATO assets and capabilities with
NATO agreement or national and multinational European means without recourse to NATO
assets and capabilities.
- The Member States have decided to define a headline
goal established in the light of crisis management experiences gained in recent years and
directly related to the full range of Petersberg tasks.
- By the end of 2002, the Union should be able to bring
together, from preidentified national and multinational assets, and rapidly to deploy and
then to sustain forces up to 50 000 capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks, with
requisite intelligence, command and control, logistics, and other support services, and
appropriate air and naval elements. The Member States should be able to deploy in full at
this level within 60 days and sustain such a deployment with adequate replacements for up
to two years.
- The General Affairs Council (GAC) reinforced by the
Defence Ministers will elaborate the headline goal and the relevant performance criteria
for national contributions. Reflecting their political will and commitment, the Member
States will set national objectives for their forces available for Petersberg tasks
matching the performance criteria. A common approach will be developed within the Council
through which progress towards the headline goal can be evaluated including a regular
review of progress made in national contributions.
- Encouraging progress has been made towards the
restructuring of European defence industries, which constitutes an important step forward
and contributes to strengthening the European industrial and technological basis. Such
developments call for increased efforts to seek further progress in the harmonisation of
military requirements and the planning and procurement of arms between the Member States.
- The Council decides upon policy relevant to Union
involvement in all phases and aspects of crisis management including decisions to carry
out Petersberg tasks in accordance with Article 23 of the EU Treaty. Taken within the
single institutional framework, decisions will ensure inter-pillar coherence in conformity
with Article 3 of the EU Treaty
- All Member States are entitled to participate fully
and on an equal footing in all the decisions and activities related to EU-led operations
in the Council and relevant Council bodies, subject to the provisions below (para 35). The
commitment of national assets by Member States to such operations will be based on their
- The Council will ensure the involvement of Defence
Ministers on the common security and defence policy. When the GAC discusses matters
related to the common European security and defence policy (CESDP) Defence Ministers as
appropriate will participate to provide guidance on defence matters. The Council may
invite Defence Ministers to meet when particular defence topics are to be discussed.
- The following new permanent political and military
bodies will be established within the Council:
- - A standing Political and Security Committee (PSC)
in Brussels will be composed of senior-level representatives. The PSC will deal with all
aspects of the CFSP including the common European security and defence policy in
accordance with the provisions of the EU Treaty and without prejudice to Community
competences in economic, humanitarian and other fields and respecting the EU Treaty
(Article 3) and the responsibilities of COREPER under the EC Treaty (Article 207).
In the case of a military crisis management operation, the PSC may be authorized by the
Council to exercise the day-to-day political control and strategic direction of the
- - The Military Committee (MC) will be composed of the
Chiefs of Defence of the EU Member States, represented by their military delegates. The MC
will meet at the level of the Chiefs of Defence as and when necessary. Acting under the
political guidance of the Council, this committee will provide for consultation and
cooperation between the Member States and give military advice and make recommendations
through the PSC, and normally through Coreper, to the Council as well as provide military
direction to the Military Staff.
- - The Military Staff (MS) within the Council
Secretariat will provide military expertise and support to the CEDSP, including the
conduct of EU-led military crisis management operations. Acting in accordance with the
political guidance of the Council and under the military direction of the Military
Committee, the Military Staff will perform early warning, situation assessment and
strategic planning for Petersberg tasks including identification of European national and
- As an interim measure, the following bodies will be
set up within the Council as of the beginning of the year 2000:
- - In accordance with the Treaty provisions with
regard to COREPER and the Political Committee (POCO), representatives of Member States
will compose an interim political and security committee, a standing body in Brussels.
This committeen is tasked to take forward the work on the CESDP by making recommendations
through the POCO and COREPER and deal with CFSP affairs on the day-to-day basis in close
contact with the Secretary-General/High Representative.
- - An interim committee of military representatives of
Member States is established to give military advice as needed to the interim political
and security committee.
- - Military experts will be seconded from the Member
States to the Council Secretariat in order to assist in the work on the CESDP. These
military experts will be transferred in time into the Military Staff.
- The Secretary General/High Representative (HR), in
assisting the Council, has a key contribution to make to the efficiency and consistency of
the CFSP and the development of the common security and defence policy. In conformity with
the EU Treaty, the SG/HR will assess and present policy options for the Council and
contribute to implementation of policy decisions.
- In the interim period, the High Representative in his
capacity as Secretary General of the WEU should make full use of WEU assets for the
purpose of advising the Council nunder Article 17 of the EU Treaty.
[The following paragraphs No. 29-33 can only
be provided from another draft version which was produced after this document. Sorry for
any inconvinience that this may cause.]
Consultation and cooperation with non-EU
countries and with NATO
The Union will ensure the necessary
dialogue, consultation and cooperation with NATO and its non-EU members, other countries
who are candidates for accession to the EU as well as other prospective partners in EU-led
crisis management, with full respect for the decision-making autonomy of the EU and the
single institutional framework of the Union.
With European NATO members who are not
members of the EU and other countries who are candidates for accession to the EU,
appropriate structures will be established for dialogue and information on issues related
to security and defence policy and crisis management. In the event of a crisis, these
structures will serve for consultation in the period leading up to a decision of the
Upon a decision by the Council to
launch an operation, the non-EU European NATO members will participate if they so wish, in
the event of an operation requiring recourse to NATO assets and capabilities. They will,
on a decision by the Council, be invited to take part in operations where the EU does not
use NATO assets.
Other countries who are candidates for accession to the EU may also be invited by the
Council to take part in EU-led operations once the Council has decided to launch such an
Russia, Ukraine and other European
States engaged in political dialogue with the Union and other interested States may be
invited to take part in the EU-led operations.
All the States that have confirmed
their participation in an EU-led operation by deploying significant military forces will
have the same rights and obligations as the EU participating Member States in the
day-to-day conduct of such an operation.
- In the case of an EU-Ied operation, an ad hoc
committee of contributors at the PSC level is set up for the daily political control and
strategic direction of that operation. All EU Member States have a right to attend the ad
hoc committee, whether or not they are participating in the operation, while only
contributing states will take part in the day-to-day conduct of that operation. Decisions
among the contributors will be taken without prejudice to decisions by the Council and
they cannot block a decision by the Council.
- The decision to end an operation will be taken by the
Council after appropriate consultation with the other participating states.
- Effective mutual consultation, cooperation and
transparency between the EU and NATO will be ensured in the development of the CESDP.
Initially relations will be developed on an informal basis, through personal contacts
between the SG/High Representative for CFSP and the Secretary General of NATO.
- In due course, a politico-military framework
arrangement should be concluded between the Union and NATO for the purpose of cooperation
in crisis management operations as set out in Washington and at Cologne.
Follow-up for the Portuguese Presidency
- The Portuguese Presidency is invited, together with
the High Representative, to carry forward the work within the General Affairs Council on
strengthening the common European security and defence policy and report to the Oporto
European Council on the progress made, including:
- [sic! UT] - recommendations on the
institutional development of the new permanent political and military bodies related to
the CESDP within the EU together with an indication of any Treaty changes which may be
necessary (notably with regard to paras 20, 21 and 22);
- - proposals on appropriate implementation
arrangements that will allow the non-EU European NATO members and candidate countries to
contribute to EU military crisis management;
- - recommendations on developing EU-NATO relations and
proposals on a set of guiding principles for consultation with NATO.